Regional variation in histopathologic features of tumor specimens from treatment-naive glioblastoma correlates with anatomic and physiologic MR Imaging
ABSTRACT Histopathologic evaluation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at initial diagnosis is typically performed on tissue obtained from regions of contrast enhancement (CE) as depicted on gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted images. The non-enhancing (NE) portion of the lesion, which contains both reactive edema and infiltrative tumor, is only partially removed due to concerns about damaging functioning brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histopathologic and physiologic MRI features of image-guided tissue specimens from CE and NE regions to investigate correlations between imaging and histopathologic parameters. One hundred nineteen tissue specimens (93 CE and 26 NE regions) were acquired from 51 patients with newly diagnosed GBM by utilizing stereotactic image-guided sampling. Variables of anatomic, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic susceptibility-weighted, contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging (DSC) from each tissue sample location were obtained and compared with histopathologic features such as tumor score, cell density, proliferation, architectural disruption, hypoxia, and microvascular hyperplasia. Tissue samples from CE regions had increased tumor score, cellular density, proliferation, and architectural disruption compared with NE regions. DSC variables such as relative cerebral blood volume, peak height, and recovery factor were significantly higher, and the percentage of signal intensity recovery was significantly lower in the CE compared with the NE regions. DWI variables were correlated with histopathologic features of GBM within NE regions. Image-guided tissue acquisition and assessment of residual tumor from treatment-naive GBM should be guided by DSC in CE regions and by DWI in NE regions.
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ABSTRACT: We examined pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from 32 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) enrolled in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Spatial variations in T1 post-gadolinium and either T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences from each tumor MRI study were used to characterize each small region of the tumor by its local contrast enhancement and edema/cellularity ("habitat"). The patient cohort was divided into group 1 (survival < 400 days, n = 16) and group 2 (survival > 400 days, n = 16). Histograms of relative values in each sequence demonstrated that the tumor regions were consistently divided into high and low blood contrast enhancement, each of which could be subdivided into regions of high, low, and intermediate cell density/interstitial edema. Group 1 tumors contained greater volumes of habitats with low contrast enhancement but intermediate and high cell density (not fully necrotic) than group 2. Both leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation schemes demonstrated that individual patients could be correctly assigned to the short or long survival group with 81.25% accuracy. We demonstrate that novel image analytic techniques can characterize regional habitat variations in GBMs using combinations of MRI sequences. A preliminary study of 32 patients from the TCGA database found that the distribution of MRI-defined habitats varied significantly among the different survival groups. Radiologically defined ecological tumor analysis may provide valuable prognostic and predictive biomarkers in GBM and other tumors.Translational oncology 02/2014; 7(1):5-13. DOI:10.1593/tlo.13730 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Recent advances in survival for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent brain tumors, combined with the development of an ever-increasing number of potential treatments, has led to significant growth in the number of clinical trials for patients with brain tumors. Suitable clinical trial design and endpoints are vital for successfully evaluating these new treatments that may continue to improve outcome. However, inadequacies of clinical trial endpoints have challenged how best to evaluate promising new therapeutics. Recent findings: Pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse confound imaging-based endpoints, including overall radiographic response and progression-free survival. Overall survival is still regarded as the definitive endpoint, but recently identified active salvage agents such as bevacizumab may diminish the association between presalvage therapy and overall survival, making interpretation of clinical trial results difficult. Novel imaging and the assessment of patient function, quality of life (QOL), and cognition are more frequently employed as endpoints. Summary: An awareness of the benefits and imperfections of clinical trial endpoints will lead to improved clinical trial design and results. Validated endpoints of patient function, QOL, and cognition are available and increasingly valued as secondary endpoints.Current Opinion in Neurology 12/2012; 25(6):780-785. DOI:10.1097/WCO.0b013e328359b45e · 5.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle to the delivery of systemically administered chemotherapeutics for the treatment of brain cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging technology that uses pulsed electric fields for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. We hypothesized that there is a minimal electric field at which BBB disruption occurs surrounding an IRE-induced zone of ablation and that this transient response can be measured using gadolinium (Gd) uptake as a surrogate marker for BBB disruption. The study was performed in a Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) compliant facility and had Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval. IRE ablations were performed in vivo in normal rat brain (n = 21) with 1-mm electrodes (0.45 mm diameter) separated by an edge-to-edge distance of 4 mm. We used an ECM830 pulse generator to deliver ninety 50-μs pulse treatments (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 V/cm) at 1 Hz. The effects of applied electric fields and timing of Gd administration (-5, +5, +15, and +30 min) was assessed by systematically characterizing IRE-induced regions of cell death and BBB disruption with 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathologic evaluations. Statistical analysis on the effect of applied electric field and Gd timing was conducted via Fit of Least Squares with α = 0.05 and linear regression analysis. The focal nature of IRE treatment was confirmed with 3D MRI reconstructions with linear correlations between volume of ablation and electric field. Our results also demonstrated that IRE is an ablation technique that kills brain tissue in a focal manner depicted by MRI (n = 16) and transiently disrupts the BBB adjacent to the ablated area in a voltage-dependent manner as seen with Evan's Blue (n = 5) and Gd administration.PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e50482. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050482 · 3.53 Impact Factor