Unusual case of coronary perforation which developed delayed cardiac tamponade due to collateral flow from contralateral coronary artery.
ABSTRACT Coronary artery perforation is a rare but catastrophic complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PCI for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions is associated with lower procedural success rate and higher incidence of complications as compared with non-CTO coronary vessels. Here we report a rare case of a patient who developed coronary perforation during PCI for the CTO lesion and suffered from delayed cardiac tamponade due to collateral flow from the contralateral coronary artery despite complete hemostasis of the perforated site by the covered stent.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are commonly found on diagnostic angiography, and there is some evidence from one study that successful percutaneous revascularization leads to an improvement in long-term survival rates. However, this study included patients treated for unstable angina with short-duration occlusion, and stent implantation was utilized in only 7%. We re-evaluated the long-term outcomes of a large consecutive series of patients with a CTO of >1-month duration treated at our centre, with stent implantation utilized in the majority. All patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1992 and 2002 were retrospectively identified from a dedicated database. A total of 874 consecutive patients were treated for 885 CTO lesions. Mean follow-up time was 4.47 +/- 2.69 years (median 4.10 years). Patients were evaluated for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) comprising death, acute myocardial infarction, and need for repeat revascularization with either coronary artery bypass surgery or PCI. Successful revascularization was achieved in 576 lesions (65.1%), in which stent implantation was used in 81.0%. At 30 days, the overall MACE rate was significantly lower in those patients with a successful recanalization (5.5 vs. 14.8%, P < 0.00001). At 5 years, survival was significantly higher in those patients with a successful revascularization (93.5 vs. 88.0%, P = 0.02). In addition, there was a significantly higher survival free of MACE (63.7 vs. 41.7%, P < 0.0001), with the majority of events reflecting the need for repeat intervention. Independent predictors for survival were successful revascularization, lower age, and the absence of diabetes mellitus and multivessel disease. Successful percutaneous revascularization of a CTO leads to a significantly improved survival rate and a reduction in major adverse events at 5 years. Most events relate to the need for repeat reintervention, and the introduction of drug-eluting stents, with low-restenosis rates, encourages the development of technologies to improve recanalization success rates. However, failed recanalization may be associated acutely with an adverse event, and new technologies must focus on a safe approach to successful recanalization.European Heart Journal 12/2005; 26(24):2630-6. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coronary perforation is a rare, but potentially catastrophic, complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. A retrospective review of the Cardiology Quality Assurance Database was performed for all percutaneous coronary interventions (n = 8,932) at William Beaumont Hospital from October 1988 to December 1992. Coronary artery perforation was reported in 35 patients (0.4%), including after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA, 11/7,905, 0.14%), transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy (TEC, 6/420, 1.3%), directional coronary atherectomy (DCA, 1/249, 0.25%), and excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA, 5/242, 2%); and none after high-speed mechanical rotational atherectomy with the Rotablator (MRA, 0/116, 0%). Perforations were classified by coronary angiography as free perforations (n = 10), contained perforations (n = 17), or other types of perforation (n = 8). Although perforation was apparent in 32 (91%) of 35 angiograms, delayed cardiac tamponade occurred in 3 patients (9%), despite the absence of angiographic evidence for perforation at the time of the procedure. Causes of perforation were the guidewire in 7 (20%), an interventional device in 26 (74%), and indeterminate in 2 (6%). Complex B2 or C lesions accounted for 83% of perforations. Final treatment included conservative therapy (reversal of anticoagulation and/or PTCA) in 22 (63%) and surgical intervention (with or without bypass surgery) in 13 (37%). Serious clinical complications included cardiac tamponade in 6 (17%), blood transfusion in 12 (34%), myocardial infarction in 9 (26%), and death in 3 (9%).Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis 08/1994; 32(3):206-12.
- Circulation 11/2005; 112(16):2530-7. · 15.20 Impact Factor