"Moreover, we show that this flexibility may be predicted from moment-tomoment variability in resting connectivity patterns in these regions. Data-driven connectivity clustering has previously been applied to identify regions of differential functional connectivity in clinical conditions [Bray et al., 2013]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a wealth of research into structural and functional brain connectivity, and how they change over development. While we are far from a complete understanding, these studies have yielded important insights into human brain development. There isan evergrowing variety of methods for assessing connectivity, each with its own advantages. Here we review research on the development of structural and/or functional brain connectivity in both typically developing subjects and subjects with neurodevelopmental disorders. Space limitations preclude an exhaustive review of brain connectivity across all developmental disorders, so we reviewa representative selection of recent findingson brain connectivity in autism, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Turner syndrome, and ADHD. Major strides have been made in understandingthe developmental trajectory of the human connectome, offering insight intocharacteristic features of brain development and biological processesinvolved in developmental brain disorders. We also discuss some common themes, includinghemispheric specialization - or asymmetry - and sex differences. We conclude by discussing some promising future directions in connectomics, including the merger of imaging and genetics, and a deeper investigation of the relationships between structural and functional connectivity.
International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 05/2013; 31(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.05.004 · 2.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of development, the brain undergoes a remarkable process of restructuring as it adapts to the environment and becomes more efficient in processing information. A variety of brain imaging methods can be used to probe how anatomy, connectivity, and function change in the developing brain. Here we review recent discoveries regarding these brain changes in both typically developing individuals and individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. We begin with typical development, summarizing research on changes in regional brain volume and tissue density, cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and functional connectivity. Space limits preclude the coverage of all neurodevelopmental disorders; instead, we cover a representative selection of studies examining neural correlates of autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Fragile X, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. Where possible, we focus on studies that identify an age by diagnosis interaction, suggesting an altered developmental trajectory. The studies we review generally cover the developmental period from infancy to early adulthood. Great progress has been made over the last 20 years in mapping how the brain matures with MR technology. With ever-improving technology, we expect this progress to accelerate, offering a deeper understanding of brain development, and more effective interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders.
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