Fluorescent Probe Studies of Polarity and Solvation within Room Temperature Ionic Liquids: A Review

Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
Journal of Fluorescence (Impact Factor: 1.93). 06/2012; 22(5):1313-43. DOI: 10.1007/s10895-012-1073-x
Source: PubMed


Ionic liquids display an array of useful and sometimes unconventional, solvent features and have attracted considerable interest in the field of green chemistry for the potential they hold to significantly reduce environmental emissions. Some of these points have a bearing on the chemical reactivity of these systems and have also generated interest in the physical and theoretical aspects of solvation in ionic liquids. This review presents an introduction to the field of ionic liquids, followed by discussion of investigations into the solvation properties of neat ionic liquids or mixed systems including ionic liquids as a major or minor component. The ionic liquid based multicomponent systems discussed are composed of other solvents, other ionic liquids, carbon dioxide, surfactants or surfactant solutions. Although we clearly focus on fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to illuminate ionic liquid systems, the issues discussed herein are of general relevance to discussions of polarity and solvent effects in ionic liquids. Transient solvation measurements carried out by means of time-resolved fluorescence measurements are particularly powerful for their ability to parameterize the kinetics of the solvation process in ionic liquids and are discussed as well.

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