Fluorescent probe studies of polarity and solvation within room temperature ionic liquids: a review.
ABSTRACT Ionic liquids display an array of useful and sometimes unconventional, solvent features and have attracted considerable interest in the field of green chemistry for the potential they hold to significantly reduce environmental emissions. Some of these points have a bearing on the chemical reactivity of these systems and have also generated interest in the physical and theoretical aspects of solvation in ionic liquids. This review presents an introduction to the field of ionic liquids, followed by discussion of investigations into the solvation properties of neat ionic liquids or mixed systems including ionic liquids as a major or minor component. The ionic liquid based multicomponent systems discussed are composed of other solvents, other ionic liquids, carbon dioxide, surfactants or surfactant solutions. Although we clearly focus on fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to illuminate ionic liquid systems, the issues discussed herein are of general relevance to discussions of polarity and solvent effects in ionic liquids. Transient solvation measurements carried out by means of time-resolved fluorescence measurements are particularly powerful for their ability to parameterize the kinetics of the solvation process in ionic liquids and are discussed as well.
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ABSTRACT: Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to follow the local and global changes in structure and dynamics during chemical and thermal denaturation of unlabeled human serum albumin (HSA) and HSA with an acrylodan moiety bound to Cys34. Acrylodan fluorescence was monitored to obtain information about unfolding processes in domain I, and the emission of the Trp residue at position 214 was used to examine domain II. In addition, Trp-to-acrylodan resonance energy transfer was examined to probe interdomain spatial relationships during unfolding. Increasing the temperature to less than 50 degrees C or adding less than 1.0 M GdHCl resulted in an initial, reversible separation of domains I and II. Denaturation by heating to 70 degrees C or by adding 2.0 M GdHCl resulted in irreversible unfolding of domain II. Further denaturation of HSA by either method resulted in irreversible unfolding of domain I. These results clearly demonstrate that HSA unfolds by a pathway involving at least three distinct steps. The low detection limits and high information content of dual probe fluorescence should allow this technique to be used to study the unfolding behavior of entrapped or immobilized HSA.Biophysical Journal 09/1998; 75(2):1084-96. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we address the following question about room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Are the properties of a RTIL more dependent on the charges of the molecular ions or on the fact that the liquid is a complex mixture of two species, one or both of which are asymmetric? To address this question and to better understand the interactions and dynamics in RTILs, we have prepared the organic ionic liquid 1-methoxyethylpyridinium dicyanoamide (MOEPy(+)/DCA(-)) and compared this RTIL with the analogous isoelectronic binary solution, comprised of equal parts of 1-methoxyethylbenzene (MOEBz) and dicyanomethane (DCM). In essence, we have created a RTIL and a nearly identical neutral pair in which we have effectively turned off the charges. To understand the intermolecular interactions in both of these liquids, we have characterized the bulk density and shear viscosity. Using femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, we have also characterized the intermolecular vibrational dynamics and diffusive reorientation. To verify that the shape, polarizability, and electronic structure of the RTIL ions and the components of the neutral pair are truly quite similar, we have carried out density functional theory calculations on the individual molecular ion and neutral species.The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 11/2005; 109(42):9388-92. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions of three ionic liquids based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation has been investigated by means of surface tension, conductivity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. From analysis of the SANS data, models for the shapes and sizes of aggregates have been proposed: the short-chain 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4mim] [BF4] system can be best modeled by treating it as a dispersion of polydisperse spherical aggregates that form above a critical aggregation concentration, whereas the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide, [C8mim] [I], solutions can be modeled as a system of regularly sized near-spherical charged micelles that form above a critical micelle concentration. Solutions of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C8mim]-[Cl], display weak long-range ordering of possibly disklike particles culminating in the formation of structures with distinct long-range order at higher concentrations.Langmuir 04/2004; 20(6):2191-8. · 4.19 Impact Factor