Delayed Myelination in an Intrauterine Growth Retardation Model Is Mediated by Oxidative Stress Upregulating Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 06/2012; 71(7):640-53. DOI: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e31825cfa81
Source: PubMed


Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We used a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic Day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation.


Available from: Rebecca A Simmons, May 08, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, often resulting in permanent blindness and/or paralysis. The discovery of autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG) that target aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has accelerated our understanding of the cellular mechanisms driving NMO pathogenesis. AQP4 is a bidirectional water channel expressed on the plasma membranes of astrocytes, retinal Müller cells, skeletal muscle, and some epithelial cells in kidney, lung and the gastrointestinal tract. AQP4 tetramers form regular supramolecular assemblies at the cell plasma membrane called orthogonal arrays of particles. The pathological features of NMO include perivascular deposition of immunoglobulin and activated complement, loss of astrocytic AQP4, inflammatory infiltration with granulocyte and macrophage accumulation, and demyelination with axon loss. Current evidence supports a causative role of AQP4-IgG in NMO, in which binding of AQP4-IgG to AQP4 orthogonal arrays on astrocytes initiates complement-dependent and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and inflammation. Immunosuppression and plasma exchange are the mainstays of therapy for NMO optic neuritis. Novel therapeutics targeting specific steps in NMO pathogenesis are entering the development pipeline, including blockers of AQP4-IgG binding to AQP4 and inhibitors of granulocyte function. However, much work remains in understanding the unique susceptibility of the optic nerves in NMO, in developing animal models of NMO optic neuritis, and in improving therapies to preserve vision.
    Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 03/2013; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2013.03.001 · 8.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Oxidative stress (OS) occurs at birth in all newborns as a consequence of the hyperoxic challenge due to the transition from the hypoxic intrauterine environment to extrauterine life. Free radical (FRs) sources such as inflammation, hyperoxia, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion, neutrophil and macrophage activation, glutamate and free iron release, all increases the OS during the perinatal period. Newborns, and particularly preterm infants, have reduced antioxidant defences and are not able to counteract the harmful effects of FRs. Energy metabolism is central to life because cells cannot exist without an adequate supply of ATP. Due to its growth, the mammalian brain can be considered as a steady-state system in which ATP production matches ATP utilisation. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to any disturbances in energy generation, and even a short-term interruption can lead to long-lasting and irreversible damage. Whenever energy failure develops, brain damage can occur. Accumulating evidence indicates that OS is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases, such as intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and epilepsy.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 08/2013; 28. DOI:10.3109/14767058.2013.796170 · 1.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Brain injury from preterm birth causes white matter injury (WMI), and it leads to chronic neurological deficits including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, cognitive, and behavioral delay. Immature O4+ oligodendrocytes are particularly vulnerable to WMI. Understanding how the developing brain recovers after injury is essential to finding more effective therapeutic strategies. Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes neuronal recovery after injury; however, its role in enhancing oligodendroglial lineage recovery is unclear. Previously, we found that recombinant EPO (rEPO) treatment enhances myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and functional recovery in adult rats after prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI). We hypothesized that after injury, rEPO would enhance oligodendroglial lineage cell genesis, survival, maturation, and myelination. Methods: In vitro assays were used to define how rEPO contributes to specific stages of oligodendrocyte development and recovery after TSHI. Results: After prenatal TSHI injury, rEPO promotes genesis of oligodendrocyte progenitors from oligodendrospheres, survival of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and O4+ immature oligodendrocytes, O4+ cell process extension, and MBP expression. rEPO did not alter OPC proliferation. Conclusion: Together, these studies demonstrate that EPO signaling promotes critical stages of oligodendroglial lineage development and recovery after prenatal TSHI injury. EPO treatment may be beneficial to preterm and other infant patient populations with developmental brain injury hallmarked by WMI.
    Pediatric Research 09/2013; 74(6). DOI:10.1038/pr.2013.155 · 2.31 Impact Factor
Show more