Rapamycin induces p53-independent apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
ABSTRACT The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key kinase acting downstream of growth factor receptor PI3K and AKT signaling, leading to processes resulting in increased cell size and proliferation through translation control. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, results predominately in G1 cell cycle arrest through translation control and occasionally, cell type-dependent apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of rapamycin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with p53 mutations. Cell proliferation was evaluated by modified MTT assay. The apoptotic effect of rapamycin was measured by caspase-3 activation and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V binding. The expression of Bcl-2 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were evaluated by western blotting. We found that rapamycin induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines with p53 mutations. Western blot analysis demonstrated that rapamycin downregulates the expression levels of Bcl-2, which leads to increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequent activation of caspase cascades. These findings suggest that rapamycin induces p53-independent apoptosis through downregulation of Bcl-2 and the mitochondrial pathway in NSCLC cell lines as a novel antitumor mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Rapamycin (Rapa), an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. This study aims to investigate the effects of Rapa suppressing proliferation of pancreatic carcinoma PC-2 cells in vitro and its molecular mechanism involved in antitumor activities. MTT assays showed that the inhibition of proliferation of PC-2 cells in vitro was in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By using transmission electron microscopy, apoptosis bodies and formation of abundant autophagic vacuoles were observed in PC-2 cells after Rapa treatment. Flow cytometry assays also showed Rapa had a positive effect on apoptosis. MDC staining showed that the fluorescent density was higher and the number of MDC-labeled particles in PC-2 cells was greater in the Rapa treatment group than in the control group. RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of p53, Bax and Beclin 1 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Beclin 1 was involved in Rapa induced autophagy and Rapa induced apoptosis as well as p53 up-regulation in PC-2 cells. The results demonstrated that Rapa could effectively inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and autophagy in PC-2 cells.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 14(1):273-85. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histone H2AX is a novel tumor suppressor protein and plays an important role in apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the role of H2AX in lung cancer cells is unclear. The detailed mechanism and epigenetic regulation by H2AX remain elusive in cancer cells. We showed that H2AX was involved in apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells as in other tumor cells. Knockdown of H2AX strongly suppressed apoptosis of A549 cells. We clarified the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis regulated by H2AX based on genome-wide transcriptional analysis. Microarray data analysis demonstrated that H2AX knockdown in A549 cells affected expression of 3,461 genes, including upregulation of 1,435 and downregulation of 2,026. These differentially expressed genes were subjected to bioinformatic analysis for exploring biological processes regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Gene ontology analysis showed that H2AX affected expression of many genes, through which, many important functions including response to stimuli, gene expression, and apoptosis were involved in apoptotic regulation of lung cancer cells. Pathway analysis identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and apoptosis as the most important pathways targeted by H2AX. Signal transduction pathway networks analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that two core genes, NFKB1 and JUN, were involved in apoptosis regulated by H2AX in lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data provide compelling clues for further exploration of H2AX function in cancer cells.Apoptosis 06/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor