Anecdotal reports suggest bariatric surgery may increase the risk of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but prospective data are lacking.
To determine the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative AUD, and independent predictors of postoperative AUD.
A prospective cohort study (Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2) of adults who underwent bariatric surgery at 10 US hospitals. Of 2458 participants, 1945 (78.8% female; 87.0% white; median age, 47 years; median body mass index, 45.8) completed preoperative and postoperative (at 1 year and/or 2 years) assessments between 2006 and 2011.
Past year AUD symptoms determined with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (indication of alcohol-related harm, alcohol dependence symptoms, or score ≥8).
The prevalence of AUD symptoms did not significantly differ from 1 year before to 1 year after bariatric surgery (7.6% vs 7.3%; P = .98), but was significantly higher in the second postoperative year (9.6%; P = .01). The following preoperative variables were independently related to an increased odds of AUD after bariatric surgery: male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.14 [95% CI, 1.51-3.01]; P < .001), younger age (age per 10 years younger with preoperative AUD: AOR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.03-1.68], P = .03; age per 10 years younger without preoperative AUD: AOR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.65-2.30], P < .001), smoking (AOR, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.19-5.58]; P = .02), regular alcohol consumption (≥ 2 drinks/week: AOR, 6.37 [95% CI, 4.17-9.72]; P < .001), AUD (eg, at age 45, AOR, 11.14 [95% CI, 7.71-16.10]; P < .001), recreational drug use (AOR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.37-4.14]; P = .01), lower sense of belonging (12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List score per 1 point lower: AOR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]; P = .01), and undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure (AOR, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.40-3.08]; P < .001; reference category: laparoscopic adjustable gastric band procedure).
In this cohort, the prevalence of AUD was greater in the second postoperative year than the year prior to surgery or in the first postoperative year and was associated with male sex and younger age, numerous preoperative variables (smoking, regular alcohol consumption, AUD, recreational drug use, and lower interpersonal support) and undergoing a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure.
"In a recent imaging study, we found that a sub-set of high fat dietary obese rats, those that maintained weight loss at higher level following RYGB, showed an increased activation of brain reward areas in response to cues associated with highly stimulating treats (Thanos et al., 2015). These, and other data, collectively suggest a greater risk for some patients to engage in alternative excessive behavior (Goldstein et al., 2007; Kalivas and Volkow, 2005; Volkow and Baler, 2013; Wang et al., 2004a), and they fit well the clinical observations of increased risk among RYGB patients for substituting food with alcohol (Ertelt et al., 2008; Hsu et al., 1998; King et al., 2012; Suzuki et al., 2012) or use of other substances (Conason et al., 2013; Dutta et al., 2006). The 'symptom "
Brain research bulletin 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2015.08.003 · 2.72 Impact Factor
"Although bariatric surgery may decrease LOC E , there are some studies showing an association between either pre-surgery BED (Guisado Macias & Vaz Leal, 2003) or post-surgery binge eating (King et al., 2012) and increased rates of problematic alcohol use post-surgery; however, the direction of this relationship is unclear. Despite rates of pre-surgery alcohol use disorders approximating 7.6 % (King et al., 2012), further research is needed to understand the association between LOC E and alcohol use within the spectrum of impulsive behaviors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal was to examine the relationship between loss of control over eating (LOCE) and other variables, including eating pathology, in bariatric candidates. Two hundred and twenty-six participants completed measures of depressive symptoms, eating pathology, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and alcohol use. Participants were divided into those who did (n = 123) and did not (n = 103) report subjective LOCE. Participants with LOCE had significantly higher levels of night eating, depressive symptoms, and eating disorder psychopathology and lower mental HRQOL. There were no observed differences in alcohol use, dietary restraint, or physical HRQOL. This study highlights eating and mental health-related correlates of LOCE, providing evidence that it is associated with increased psychological burden in bariatric candidates. This is one of the first studies to report the relationship between LOCE and night eating in this group and future research could elaborate on these variables to determine their importance in long-term weight loss.
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 12/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s10880-014-9411-6 · 1.49 Impact Factor
"King et al.  conducted the first large scale longitudinal follow-up study of alcohol usage after bariatric surgery. Almost two thousand (n = 1945) patients were followed prospectively for two years postsurgery . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To describe the clinical phenotype of alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment-seeking patients with Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery (RYGB) history; and to compare it to AUD obese non-RYGB controls.
Retrospective study of electronic medical records for all patients 30-60 years treated at the Mayo Clinic Addiction Treatment Program, between June, 2004 and July, 2012. Comparisons were performed with consumption patterns pre-RYGB and at time of treatment; excluding patients with AUD treatments pre-RYGB.
Forty-one out of 823 patients had a RYGB history (4.9%); 122 controls were selected. Compared to controls, the RYGB group had significantly more females [n = 29 (70.7%) vs. n = 35 (28.7%) p < 0.0001]; and met AUD criteria at a significantly earlier age (19.1 ± 0.4 vs. 25.0 ± 1 years old, p = 0.002). On average, RYGB patients reported resuming alcohol consumption 1.4 ± 0.2 years post-surgery, meeting criteria for AUD at 3.1 ± 0.5 years and seeking treatment at 5.4 ± 0.3 years postoperatively. Pre-surgical drinks per day were significantly fewer compared to post-surgical consumption [2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 8.1 ± 1.3, p = 0.009]. Prior to admission, RYGB patients reported fewer drinking days per week vs. controls (4.7 ± 0.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.8 days, p = 0.02). Neither RYGB, gender, age nor BMI were associated with differential drinking patterns.
The results of this study suggest that some patients develop progressive AUD several years following RYGB. This observation has important clinical implications, calling for AUD-preventive measures following RYGB. Further large-scale longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the association between RYGB and AUD onset.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research 09/2014; 78(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.019 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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