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Exposure of US travelers to rabid zebra, Kenya, 2011.

Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 07/2012; 18(7):1202-4. DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.120081
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT TO THE EDITOR: Rabies is an acute progressive encephalitis caused by infection with a lyssavirus (genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) (1). Most human infections are caused by bites from rabid animals, but the virus also can be transmitted by contact of open wounds or mucous membranes with animal saliva (1,2). Prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended to prevent rabies (3). Canids are common sources of human exposures in many regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (4). However, all mammals are susceptible, including herbivores such as horses, cattle, and antelope (5-7).

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    ABSTRACT: Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 03/2014; 16(3):394.

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