Exposure of US Travelers to Rabid Zebra, Kenya, 2011

Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2012; 18(7):1202-4. DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.120081
Source: PubMed


TO THE EDITOR: Rabies is an acute progressive encephalitis caused by infection with a lyssavirus (genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) (1). Most human infections are caused by bites from rabid animals, but the virus also can be transmitted by contact of open wounds or mucous membranes with animal saliva (1,2). Prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended to prevent rabies (3). Canids are common sources of human exposures in many regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America (4). However, all mammals are susceptible, including herbivores such as horses, cattle, and antelope (5-7).

Download full-text


Available from: Jesse D Blanton, Oct 05, 2015
18 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Rabies is a fatal viral infection, resulting in >55,000 deaths globally each year. In August 2011, a young orphaned zebra at a Kenyan safari lodge acquired rabies and potentially exposed >150 tourists and local staff. An investigation was initiated to determine exposures among the local staff, and to describe animal bite surveillance in the affected district. Methods: We interviewed lodge staff on circumstances surrounding the zebra's illness and assessed their exposure status. We reviewed animal bite report forms from the outpatient department at the district hospital. Results: The zebra was reported bitten by a dog on 31(st) July 2011, became ill on 23(rd)August, and died three days later. There were 22 employees working at the lodge during that time. Six (27%) had high exposure due to contact with saliva (bottle feeding, veterinary care) and received four doses of rabies vaccine and one of immune-globulin, and 16 (73%) had low exposure due to casual contact and received only four doses of rabies vaccine. From January 2010 to September 2011, 118 cases of animal bites were reported in the district; 67 (57%) occurred among males, 65 (57%) in children <15 years old, and 61 (52%) were inflicted in a lower extremity. Domestic and stray dogs accounted for 98% of reported bites. Conclusion: Dog bites remains the main source of rabies exposure in the district, but exposure can result from wildlife. This highlights the importance of a one health approach with strong communication between wildlife, veterinary, and human health sectors to improve rabies prevention and control.
    Pan African Medical Journal 01/2014; 19. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.19.10.3434
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 03/2014; 16(3):394. DOI:10.1007/s11908-014-0394-0 · 1.68 Impact Factor