Adenoviruses in Fecal Samples from Asymptomatic Rhesus Macaques, United States

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2012; 18(7):1081-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.111665
Source: PubMed


Adenoviruses can cause infectious diarrheal disease or respiratory infections in humans; 2 recent reports have indicated probable human infection with simian adenoviruses (SAdVs). To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates. Of these, 9 were purified and completely sequenced; 3 SAdV samples from the American Type Culture Collection (SAdV-6, SAdV-18, and SAdV-20) were also completely sequenced. The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea. The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

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    • "A. Marek et al. / Virology 462-463 (2014) 107–114 110 contain two fiber genes (without a poly(G) stretch), but (as proved for HAdV-40) have only one fiber per penton base (Chiu et al., 2013; Kidd et al., 1993; Kovacs et al., 2005; Roy et al., 2012). Consequently, it would be interesting to see whether these novel turkey and water fowl aviadenoviruses also have only one fiber per penton base. "
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    ABSTRACT: Complete genomes of the first isolates of pigeon adenovirus 1 (PiAdV-1) and Muscovy duck adenovirus (duck adenovirus 2, DAdV-2) were sequenced. The PiAdV-1 genome is 45,480bp long, and has a gene organization most similar to turkey adenovirus 1. Near the left end of the genome, it lacks ORF0, ORF1A, ORF1B and ORF1C, and possesses ORF52, whereas six novel genes were found near the right end. The DAdV-2 genome is 43,734bp long, and has a gene organization similar to that of goose adenovirus 4 (GoAdV-4). It lacks ORF51, ORF1C and ORF54, and possesses ORF55A and five other novel genes. PiAdV-1 and DAdV-2 genomes contain two and one fiber genes, respectively. Genome organization, G+C content, molecular phylogeny and host type confirm the need to establish two novel species (Pigeon aviadenovirus A and Duck aviadenovirus B) within the genus Aviadenovirus. Phylogenetic data show that DAdV-2 is most closely related to GoAdV-4.
    Virology 06/2014; 462-463C(1):107-114. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.033 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "This variation in symptoms is also seen among animals infected with adenovirus. Early studies implicated adenovirus in chronic colitis (Sestak et al. 2003; Stuker et al. 1979), but recent reports suggest the virus is also prevalent in asymptomatic carriers (Roy et al. 2012). Among animals infected with the same bacterial or viral pathogens, substantial variability in symptoms suggests the possibility of genetic variation among individuals in susceptibility or response to infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Complex diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, among many others) pose the biggest threat to human health worldwide and are among the most challenging to investigate. Susceptibility to complex disease may be caused by multiple genetic variants (GVs) and their interaction, by environmental factors, and by interaction between GVs and environment, and large study cohorts with substantial analytical power are typically required to elucidate these individual contributions. Here, we discuss the advantages of both power and feasibility afforded by the use of extended pedigrees of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for genetic studies of complex human disease based on next-generation sequence data. We present these advantages in the context of previous research conducted in rhesus macaques for several representative complex diseases. We also describe a single, multigeneration pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques and a sample biobank we have developed for genetic analysis of complex disease, including power of this pedigree to detect causal GVs using either genetic linkage or association methods in a variance decomposition approach. Finally, we summarize findings of significant heritability for a number of quantitative traits that demonstrate that genetic contributions to risk factors for complex disease can be detected and measured in this pedigree. We conclude that the development and application of an extended pedigree to analysis of complex disease traits in the rhesus macaque have shown promising early success and that genome-wide genetic and higher order -omics studies in this pedigree are likely to yield useful insights into the architecture of complex human disease.
    ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 11/2013; 54(2):91-105. DOI:10.1093/ilar/ilt041 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoviruses (AdVs) are DNA viruses that infect many vertebrate hosts, including humans and nonhuman primates. Here we identify a novel AdV species, provisionally named “simian adenovirus C (SAdV-C),” associated with a 1997 outbreak of acute respiratory illness in captive baboons (4 of 9) at a primate research facility in Texas. None of the six AdVs recovered from baboons (BaAdVs) during the outbreak, including the two baboons who died from pneumonia, were typeable. Since clinical samples from the two fatal cases were not available, whole-genome sequencing of nasal isolates from one sick baboon and three asymptomatic baboons during the outbreak was performed. Three AdVs were members of species SAdV-C (BaAdV-2 and BaAdV-4 were genetically identical, and BaAdV-3), while one (BaAdV-1) was a member of the recently described SAdV-B species. BaAdV-3 was the only AdV among the 4 isolated from a sick baboon, and thus was deemed to be the cause of the outbreak. Significant divergence (<58% amino acid identity) was found in one of the fiber proteins of BaAdV-3 relative to BaAdV-2 and -4, suggesting that BaAdV-3 may be a rare SAdV-C recombinant. Neutralizing antibodies to the other 3 AdVs, but not BaAdV-3, were detected in healthy baboons from 1996 to 2003 and staff personnel from 1997. These results implicate a novel adenovirus species (SAdV-C) in an acute respiratory outbreak in a baboon colony and underscore the potential for cross-species transmission of AdVs between humans and nonhuman primates.
    mBio 02/2013; 4(2). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00084-13 · 6.79 Impact Factor
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