Knock-down of Kaiso induces proliferation and blocks granulocytic differentiation in blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT Kaiso protein has been identified as a new member of the POZ-ZF subfamily of transcription factors that are involved in development and cancer. There is consistent evidence of the role of Kaiso and its involvement in human tumorigenesis but there is no evidence about its role in hematopoietic differentiation or establishment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used, normal K562 cell line, established from a CML patient in blast crisis, and imatinib-resistant K562 cell line, to investigate the specific distribution of Kaiso and their contribution to the cell differentiation status of the blast crisis of CML (CML-BP).
We found cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso, in K562 cells and patients, confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and western blot of cytoplasmic protein fraction. Kaiso was weakly expressed in the imatinib-resistant K562 cell line confirmed by immunofluorescence and western blot. The cytoplasmic expression of Kaiso was not modified when the K562 cells were treated for 16 h with imatinib 0.1 and 1 μM. In our study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down regulate the expression of Kaiso and p120ctn in K562 cell line. Kaiso and p120ctn were down regulated individually (siRNA-Kaiso or siRNA-p120ctn) or in combination using a simultaneous co-transfection (siRNA-Kaiso/p120ctn). We next investigated whether knockdown either Kaiso or p120ctn alone or in combination affects the cell differentiation status in K562 cells. After down regulation we analyzed the expression of hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation genes: SCF, PU-1, c-MyB, C/EBPα, Gata-2 and maturation markers of hematopoietic cells expressed in the plasma membrane: CD15, CD11b, CD33, CD117. The levels of SCF and c-MyB were increased by 1000% and 65% respectively and PU-1, Gata-2 and C/EBPα were decreased by 66%, 50% and 80% respectively, when Kaiso levels were down regulated by siRNA. The results were similar when both Kaiso and p120ctn were down regulated by siRNA. The increased expression of SCF and decreased expression of GATA-2 could be responsible by the higher cell viability detected in K562 cells double knock-down of both Kaiso and p120ctn. Finally, we studied the effect of knock-down either Kaiso or p120ctn, alone or in combination on CD15, CD11b, CD33 and Cd117 expression. Using siRNA approach a reduction of 35%, 8% and 13% in CD15, CD33 and CD117 levels respectively, were achieved in all transfections, when compared to scrambled knock-down cells.
These results suggest that both Kaiso and p120ctn, contributes to maintaining the differentiated state of the K562 cells and similar to other cancers, cytoplasmic localization of Kaiso is related to a poor prognosis in CML-BP. By the broad and profound effects on the expression of genes and markers of hematopoietic differentiation produced by Kaiso knock-down, these findings reveal Kaiso as a potential target for selective therapy of CML.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease with distinct biological and clinical features. The biologic basis of the stereotypical progression from chronic phase through accelerated phase to blast crisis is poorly understood. We used DNA microarrays to compare gene expression in 91 cases of CML in chronic (42 cases), accelerated (17 cases), and blast phases (32 cases). Three thousand genes were found to be significantly (P < 10(-10)) associated with phase of disease. A comparison of the gene signatures of chronic, accelerated, and blast phases suggest that the progression of chronic phase CML to advanced phase (accelerated and blast crisis) CML is a two-step rather than a three-step process, with new gene expression changes occurring early in accelerated phase before the accumulation of increased numbers of leukemia blast cells. Especially noteworthy and potentially significant in the progression program were the deregulation of the WNT/beta-catenin pathway, the decreased expression of Jun B and Fos, alternative kinase deregulation, such as Arg (Abl2), and an increased expression of PRAME. Studies of CML patients who relapsed after initially successful treatment with imatinib demonstrated a gene expression pattern closely related to advanced phase disease. These studies point to specific gene pathways that might be exploited for both prognostic indicators as well as new targets for therapy.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2006; 103(8):2794-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ets family transcription factor PU.1 is required for the development of multiple lineages of the immune system. Using retroviral transduction of PU.1 complementary DNA into mutant hematopoietic progenitors, we demonstrate that differing concentrations of the protein regulate the development of B lymphocytes as compared with macrophages. A low concentration of PU. 1 protein induces the B cell fate, whereas a high concentration promotes macrophage differentiation and blocks B cell development. Conversely, a transcriptionally weakened mutant protein preferentially induces B cell generation. Our results suggest that graded expression of a transcription factor can be used to specify distinct cell fates in the hematopoietic system.Science 06/2000; 288(5470):1439-41. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a novel zinc finger protein, ZID (zinc finger protein with interaction domain). At its amino terminus ZID contains a 120-amino-acid conserved motif present in a large family of proteins that includes both the otherwise unrelated zinc finger proteins, such as Ttk, GAGA, and ZF5, and a group of poxvirus proteins: We therefore refer to this domain as the POZ (poxvirus and zinc finger) domain. The POZ domains of ZID, Ttk, and GAGA act to inhibit the interaction of their associated finger regions with DNA. This inhibitory effect is not dependent on interactions with other proteins and does not appear dependent on specific interactions between the POZ domain and the finger region. The POZ domain acts as a specific protein-protein interaction domain: The POZ domains of ZID and Ttk can interact with themselves but not with each other, POZ domains from ZF5, or the viral protein SalF17R. However, the POZ domain of GAGA can interact efficiently with the POZ domain of Ttk. In transfection experiments, the ZID POZ domain inhibits DNA binding in NIH-3T3 cells and appears to localize the protein to discrete regions of the nucleus. We discuss the implications of multimerization for the function of POZ domain proteins.Genes & Development 08/1994; 8(14):1664-77. · 12.44 Impact Factor