Disseminated Microsporidiosis in an Immunosuppressed Patient

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2012; 18(7):1155-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.120047
Source: PubMed


We report a case of disseminated microsporidiosis in a patient with multiple myeloma who had received an allogeneic stem cell transplant requiring substantial immunosuppression. The causative organism was identified as Tubulinosema acridophagus, confirming this genus of microsporidia as a novel human pathogen.

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Available from: Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Members of family Tubulinosematidae appear to possess opportunistic properties that would allow them to grow and develop in mammal cells. Three species (Anncaliia vesicularum, A. algerae , T. acridophagus) have been detected in humans (Franzen et al., 2005b; Meissner et al., 2012; Solter et al., 2012), whereas a complete lifecycle of T. ratisbonensis has also been successfully achieved by Franzen et al. (2005b) in Vero cells. A salient feature of this new species seems to be the ability to induce the formation of cyst-like bodies in the adipose tissue, the presence of which was confirmed in almost all cases. "
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    • "cuniculi, E. hellem, E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi) are specific to mammals, while others (e.g. Vittaforma corneae, T. hominis, T. anthropophthera, A. algerae, Tubulinosema spp., Endoreticulatus-like microsporidium, and several organisms assembled under the collective genus Microsporidium) are opportunists that have been acquired by humans from insects or unknown hosts (Anane and Attouchi, 2010; Cali and Takvorian, 2004; Canning and Lom, 1986; Coyle et al., 2004; Curry et al., 2005; Didier, 2005; Didier et al., 2004; Didier and Weiss, 2006; Cali et al., 2010; Choudhary et al., 2011; Fan et al., 2012; Field et al., 2012; Juarez et al., 2005; Mathis et al., 2005; Meissner et al., 2012; Suankratay et al., 2012; Vávra et al., 1998), or as in the case of Pleistophora ronneafiei, probably from "
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitism, aptly defined as one of the 'living-together' strategies (Trager, 1986), presents a dynamic system in which the parasite and its host are under evolutionary pressure to evolve new and specific adaptations, thus enabling the coexistence of the two closely interacting partners. Microsporidia are very frequently encountered obligatory intracellular protistan parasites that can infect both animals and some protists and are a consummate example of various aspects of the 'living-together' strategy. Microsporidia, relatives of fungi in the superkingdom Opisthokonta, belong to the relatively small group of parasites for which the host cell cytoplasm is the site of both reproduction and maturation. The structural and physiological reduction of their vegetative stage, together with the manipulation of host cell physiology, enables microsporidia to live in the cytosolic environment for most of their life cycle in a way resembling endocytobionts. The ability to form structurally complex spores and the invention and assembly of a unique injection mechanism enable microsporidia to disperse within host tissues and between host organisms, resulting in long-lasting infections. Microsporidia have adapted their genomes to the intracellular way of life, evolved strategies how to obtain nutrients directly from the host and how to manipulate not only the infected cells, but also the hosts themselves. The enormous variability of host organisms and their tissues provide microsporidian parasites a virtually limitless terrain for diversification and ecological expansion. This review attempts to present a general overview of microsporidia, emphasising some less known and/or more recently discovered facets of their biology.
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    Advances in Parasitology 04/2013; 82:1-32. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-407706-5.00001-0 · 6.23 Impact Factor
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