Increased frequency of osteoporosis and BMD below the expected range for age among South Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT To compare the frequency of osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) below the expected range for age between female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects and to determine risk factors for bone loss in female patients with RA.
Two hundred and ninety-nine patients with RA and 246 age-matched healthy subjects were included in this study. BMD in the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A T-score of -2.5 or lower in postmenopausal women was defined as osteoporosis, and a Z-score -2.0 or lower in females prior to menopause was defined as below the expected range for age.
The frequency of osteoporosis in the RA patients (22.1%) was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (11.4%) at either the spine or hip (P = 0.014). The occurrence of BMD below the expected range for age in RA patients (7.8%) was also significantly higher than in healthy subjects (1.0%, P = 0.015). In 299 female patients with RA, higher age, lower body mass index and postmenopausal status were significantly associated with the lumbar spine and hip BMD reduction. Of disease-related variables, glucocorticoid use was independently associated with reduction of hip BMD.
The prevalence of osteoporosis in the RA patients was 1.9 times higher than in healthy subjects. Glucocorticoid use was a risk factor for generalized bone loss in female RA patients.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Clear information is still lacking on the safety of corticosteroids (GCs) therapy in RA despite 6 decades of clinical experience. Scope: We performed a literature search in Ovid MEDLINE from January 2000 to December 2012. Our PICO strategy search was: rheumatoid arthritis [Population], corticosteroids or glucocorticoids [Intervention], any comparison [Comparator], adverse effects [Outcome]. Studies were selected if they reported any measure of association between GCs intake and potential adverse effects in RA patients. Findings: We identified 1,030 papers and selected for analysis 26 observational studies and 6 systematic reviews. The major side effects of GSs in RA are bone loss, risk of cardiovascular events and risk of infections as evidenced by large observational studies and not necessarily RCTs. Others associations were reported with herpes zoster, tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, cutaneous abnormalities, gastrointestinal perforation, respiratory infection and self-reported health problem such as cushingoid phenotype, ecchymosis, parchment-like skin, epistaxis, weight gain and sleep disturbance. Others potential adverse effects of GCs were studied but no association was found. This included psychological disorders, dermatophytosis, brain diseases, interstitial lung disease, memory deficit, metabolic syndrome, lymphoma, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, renal function and cerebrovascular accidents. Most of the evidence emanates from observational research and the inherent limitations of such data should be kept in mind. Conclusion: Recent observational data and systematic reviews suggest that GCs can lead to relatively alarming and burdensome side effects in RA. This is particularly true for patients who have longer term and higher dose therapies. GCs are largely used in RA and knowing their safety profile is essential to improve patients care. The design of new therapeutic strategies intended to minimize the daily dosing of GCs while conserving their beneficial effect should be encouraged.Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2013; DOI:10.1185/03007995.2013.818531 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis (OP) commonly occurs in the setting of inflammatory arthritis, whereas there is an inverse relationship with osteoarthritis (OA). We review the recent updates in epidemiology and pathophysiology of OP relating to several arthridities. In ankylosing spondylitis, lateral lumbar spine dual x-ray absorptiometry is better at detecting osteoporosis compared with the AP view and patients receiving treatment with anti- tumor necrosis factor medications had lower levels of bone turnover markers. With regard to rheumatoid arthritis, anticitrullinated peptide positivity without clinical arthritis as well as higher levels of interleukin-6 is associated with decreased bone mineral density and polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor in RA patients may predispose to OP. With regard to OA, results from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study and several radiological studies suggest that differences in the distribution of bone mass at the femoral neck may account for the inverse relationship of OA and OP, and several studies suggest that OA and OP have opposing cytokine and bone metabolism marker profiles.Current Osteoporosis Reports 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11914-013-0172-1
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical and radiological results of radiolunate (RL) arthrodesis for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and/or biologicals with an average of 7 years of follow-up. In addition, we compared the results in advanced stages with those in less advanced stages in patients with comparatively low disease activity of RA. This study included RL arthrodesis for 22 wrists in 19 patients with comparatively low disease activity of RA. The mean follow-up period was 7 years (range, 2-16 y). Fourteen wrists with Larsen classification grade III and 8 wrists with grade IV were included in this study. The range of motion was calculated, and clinical scores were graded using the Mayo wrist score and the Stanley classification. The carpal height ratio (CHR) and ulnar translation (UT) were determined from the radiographs. All wrists achieved radiographic fusion. Clinical scores were markedly improved, although there was a decrease in flexion. The Larsen grade did not deteriorate during follow-up. CHR and UT improved immediately after operation and remained good through the final follow-up. Although the flexion/extension range of motion of the grade IV wrists was smaller than that of the grade III wrists at follow-up, both groups obtained good clinical results. Our results for RL arthrodesis were clinically and radiologically better than those of previous reports. Control of the disease activity of RA could theoretically be a factor in obtaining good long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes. RL arthrodesis is our recommended procedure for the RA wrist even in the advanced stage. Therapeutic IV.The Journal of hand surgery 08/2013; 38(8):1484-91. DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.05.007 · 1.33 Impact Factor