Article

Pharmacological Tuning of Heat Shock Protein 70 Modulates Polyglutamine Toxicity and Aggregation

Boston Biomedical Research Institute , Watertown, Massachusetts 04272-2829, United States.
ACS Chemical Biology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 06/2012; 7(9):1556-64. DOI: 10.1021/cb300166p
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nine neurodegenerative disorders are caused by the abnormal expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) regions within distinct proteins. Genetic and biochemical evidence has documented that the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), modulates polyQ toxicity and aggregation, yet it remains unclear how Hsp70 might be used as a potential therapeutic target in polyQ-related diseases. We have utilized a pair of membrane-permeable compounds that tune the activity of Hsp70 by either stimulating or by inhibiting its ATPase functions. Using these two pharmacological agents in both yeast and PC12 cell models of polyQ aggregation and toxicity, we were surprised to find that stimulating Hsp70 solubilized polyQ conformers and simultaneously exacerbated polyQ-mediated toxicity. By contrast, inhibiting Hsp70 ATPase activity protected against polyQ toxicity and promoted aggregation. These findings clarify the role of Hsp70 as a possible drug target in polyQ disorders and suggest that Hsp70 uses ATP hydrolysis to help partition polyQ proteins into structures with varying levels of proteotoxicity. Our results thus support an emerging concept in which certain kinds of polyQ aggregates may be protective, while more soluble polyQ species are toxic.

2 Followers
 · 
140 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cells have to cope with stressful conditions and adapt to changing environments. Heat stress, heavy metal ions or UV stress induce damage to cellular proteins and disturb the balanced status of the proteome. The adjusted balance between folded and folding proteins, called protein homoeostasis, is required for every aspect of cellular functionality. Protective proteins called chaperones are expressed under extreme conditions in order to prevent aggregation of cellular proteins and safeguard protein quality. These chaperones co-operate during de novo folding, refolding and disaggregation of damaged proteins and in many cases refold them to their functional state. Even under physiological conditions these machines support protein homoeostasis and maintain the balance between de novo folding and degradation. Mutations generating unstable proteins, which are observed in numerous human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cystic fibrosis, also challenge the protein quality control system. A better knowledge of how the protein homoeostasis system is regulated will lead to an improved understanding of these diseases and provide potential targets for therapy.
    Essays in Biochemistry 08/2014; 56(1):53-68. DOI:10.1042/bse0560053 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) segments cause a number of fatal neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Previous high-throughput screens in cellular and biochemical models of HD have revealed compounds that mitigate polyQ aggregation and proteotoxicity, providing insight into the mechanisms of disease and leads for potential therapeutics. However, the structural diversity of natural products has not yet been fully mobilized toward these goals. Here, we have screened a collection of ~11 000 natural product extracts for the ability to recover the slow growth of ΔProQ103-expressing yeast cells in 384-well plates (Z' ~ 0.7, CV ~ 8%). This screen identified actinomycin D as a strong inhibitor of polyQ aggregation and proteotoxicity at nanomolar concentrations (~50-500 ng/mL). We found that a low dose of actinomycin D increased the levels of the heat-shock proteins Hsp104, Hsp70 and Hsp26 and enhanced binding of Hsp70 to the polyQ in yeast. Actinomycin also suppressed aggregation of polyQ in mammalian cells, suggesting a conserved mechanism. These results establish natural products as a rich source of compounds with interesting mechanisms of action against polyQ disorders.
    Chemical Biology &amp Drug Design 04/2014; 83(4):440-9. DOI:10.1111/cbdd.12259 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The highly conserved 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) play an integral role in proteostasis such that dysregulation has been implicated in numerous diseases. Elucidating the precise role of Hsp70 family members in the cellular context, however, has been hampered by the redundancy and intricate regulation of the chaperone network, and relatively few selective and potent tools. We have characterized a natural product, novolactone, that targets cytosolic and ER-localized isoforms of Hsp70 through a highly conserved covalent interaction at the interface between the substrate-binding and ATPase domains. Biochemical and structural analyses indicate that novolactone disrupts interdomain communication by allosterically inducing a conformational change in the Hsp70 protein to block ATP-induced substrate release and inhibit refolding activities. Thus, novolactone is a valuable tool for exploring the requirements of Hsp70 chaperones in diverse cellular contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemistry & Biology 12/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.11.007 · 6.59 Impact Factor