Enhanced osteogenic differentiation with 3D electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds.
ABSTRACT Aim: Developing 3D scaffolds mimicking the nanoscale structure of the native extracellular matrix is important in tissue regeneration. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the novelty of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds and compare their efficiency with 2D nanofibrous scaffolds. Materials & methods: The 2D poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds were 2D meshes fabricated by the conventional electrospinning technique, whereas the 3D poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by a modified electrospinning technique using a dynamic liquid support system. The morphology, proliferation and differentiation abilities of human mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic medium on both scaffolds were investigated. Results & conclusion: Compared with the 2D scaffolds, the 3D scaffolds significantly increased the expression of osteoblastic genes of the stem cells as well as the formation of bone minerals. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic and micro-computed tomographic images showed the dense deposition of bone minerals aligned along the nanofibers of the 3D scaffolds after 14 and 28 days cultured with the mesenchymal stem cells. As such, the 3D electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffold is a novel bone graft substitute for bone tissue regeneration. Original submitted 17 November 2011; Revised submitted 21 February 2012.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular matrix (ECM) profoundly influences the growth and differentiation of the mammary gland epithelium, both in culture and in vivo. Utilizing a clonal population of mouse mammary epithelial cells that absolutely requires an exogenous ECM for function, we developed a rapid assay to study signal transduction by ECM. Two components of the cellular response to a basement membrane overlay that result in the expression of the milk protein beta-casein were defined. The first component of this response involves a rounding and clustering of the cells that can be physically mimicked by plating the cells on a nonadhesive substratum. The second component is biochemical in nature, and it is associated with beta 1 integrin clustering and increased tyrosine phosphorylation. The second component is initiated in a morphology-independent manner, but the proper translation of this biochemical signal into a functional response requires cell rounding and cell clustering. Thus, physical and biochemical signal transduction events contribute to the ECM-dependent regulation of tissue-specific gene expression in mouse mammary epithelial cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1995; 91(26):12378-82. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was investigated in a three dimensional (3-D) network of nanofibers formed by self-assembly of peptide-amphiphile (PA) molecules. PA was synthesized by standard solid phase chemistry that ends with the alkylation of the NH(2) terminus of the peptide. The sequence of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was included in peptide design as well. A 3-D network of nanofibers was formed by mixing cell suspensions in media with dilute aqueous solution of PA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed the formation of fibrous assemblies with an extremely high aspect ratio and high surface areas. When rat MSC were seeded into the PA nanofibers with or without RGD, larger number of cells attached was observed in the PA nanofibers including RGD. When measured to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of MSC, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin content became maximum for the PA nanofibers including RGD compared with those without RGD, although both the values were significantly higher compared with those in the static tissue culture plate (2-D culture). We concluded that the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSC were influenced by PA nanofibers as the cell scaffold.Biomaterials 09/2006; 27(22):4079-86. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To date, introduction of gene-modified cells in vivo is still a critical limitation for cell-based gene therapy. In this study, based on tissue engineering techniques, we developed a three-dimensional (3-D) transfection system to be cell-based gene delivery vehicle. Human trophoblast-like ED(27) and fibroblastic NIH3T3 cells were used as model cell lines. Cells were seeded onto PET fibrous matrices and plated on polyethylene terephathalate (PET) films as 2-D transfection control. The cell-matrices and cell-films were transfected with pCMV-betagal and pEGFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter gene vectors using LipofectAmine reagent. Gene expression on 3-D versus 2-D growth surface were investigated. The effects of seeding method, seeding density, porosity of the PET matrix, and culturing time of the cell-matrix complex on cDNA transfection and expression in the 3-D cell-matrix complex were also investigated. The beta-gal assay and GFP detection showed that 3-D transfection promoted a higher gene expression level and longer expression time as compared to 2-D transfection. There existed an optimal initial cell seeding density for gene transfection of 3-D cell-matrix complex. Cells seeded on PET matrices with a lower porosity ( approximately 87%) had higher gene expression activities than cells in the matrices with a higher porosity ( approximately 90%). Also, Higher gene expression levels of beta-gal were obtained for the more uniformly seeded matrices that were seeded with a depth-filtration method. The results from this study demonstrate the potential utility of cells seeded onto 3-D fibrous matrices as cell-based gene delivery vehicle for in vitro study of gene expression or in vivo gene therapy.Tissue Engineering 11/2001; 7(5):585-98. · 4.07 Impact Factor