Developing 3D scaffolds mimicking the nanoscale structure of the native extracellular matrix is important in tissue regeneration. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the novelty of 3D nanofibrous scaffolds and compare their efficiency with 2D nanofibrous scaffolds.
Materials & methods:
The 2D poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds were 2D meshes fabricated by the conventional electrospinning technique, whereas the 3D poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by a modified electrospinning technique using a dynamic liquid support system. The morphology, proliferation and differentiation abilities of human mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic medium on both scaffolds were investigated.
Results & conclusion:
Compared with the 2D scaffolds, the 3D scaffolds significantly increased the expression of osteoblastic genes of the stem cells as well as the formation of bone minerals. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic and micro-computed tomographic images showed the dense deposition of bone minerals aligned along the nanofibers of the 3D scaffolds after 14 and 28 days cultured with the mesenchymal stem cells. As such, the 3D electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/collagen nanofibrous scaffold is a novel bone graft substitute for bone tissue regeneration.
"MSCs are a heterogeneous population of plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like cells, from which the progenitor cells in culture are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages  . Recent studies showed that combining human MSCs and biomaterials with controlled properties, or by adding certain growth factors, differentiation towards chondrogenic  , osteogenic  , myogenic , adipogenic   endothelial , and neurogenic  lineage can be achieved. Distribution and adherence of cells in scaffolds play a crucial role in the efficiency of tissue engineering approaches. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanofiber scaffolds are effective for tissue engineering since they emulate the fibrous nanostructure of native extracellular matrix (ECM). Although electrospinning has been the most common approach for fabricating nanofiber scaffolds, airbrushing approaches have also been advanced for making nanofibers. For airbrushing, compressed gas is used to blow polymer solution through a small nozzle which shears the polymer solution into fibers. Our goals were 1) to assess the versatility of airbrushing, 2) to compare the properties of airbrushed and electrospun nanofiber scaffolds and 3) to test the ability of airbrushed nanofibers to support stem cell differentiation. The results demonstrated that airbrushing could produce nanofibers from a wide range of polymers and onto a wide range of targets. Airbrushing was safer, 10-fold faster, 100-fold less expensive to set-up and able to deposit nanofibers onto a broader range of targets than electrospinning. Airbrushing yielded nanofibers that formed loosely packed bundles of aligned nanofibers, while electrospinning produced un-aligned, single nanofibers that were tightly packed and highly entangled. Airbrushed nanofiber mats had larger pores, higher porosity and lower modulus than electrospun mats, results that were likely caused by the differences in morphology (nanofiber packing and entanglement). Airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds fabricated from 4 different polymers were each able to support osteogenic differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Finally, the differences in airbrushed versus electrospun nanofiber morphology caused differences in hBMSC shape where cells had a smaller spread area and a smaller volume on airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds. These results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of airbrushing versus electrospinning nanofiber scaffolds and demonstrate that airbrushed nanofiber scaffolds can support stem cell differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i) skin; (ii) cartilage; (iii) bone; (iv) nerve; and (v) cardiac.
Darice Y. Wong, Thanmayi Ranganath, Andrea M. Kasko
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