Mechanism of thrombocytopenia in chronic hepatitis C as evaluated by the immature platelet fraction
ABSTRACT Thrombocytopenia occurs frequently in chronic hepatitis C. The mechanism of this association was investigated utilizing the immature platelet fraction (IPF%) as an index of platelet production together with assay of thrombopoietin (TPO).
In a cross-sectional study, 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C were studied, 29 with thrombocytopenia and 18 without thrombocytopenia (six patients in each group were on interferon therapy).
IPF% was elevated in the thrombocytopenic compared with the nonthrombocytopenic group (9.0 ± 4.8% vs. 4.7 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001), and an increase in IPF% was significantly associated with thrombocytopenia on multivariable analysis (P < 0.05). Splenomegaly was more common in thrombocytopenic than in nonthrombocytopenic subjects (66% vs. 6%, P < 0.001), and on multivariable analysis, splenomegaly was the factor associated with the highest relative risk of thrombocytopenia (RR = 1.9, P < 0.05). IPF% values were elevated in a similar proportion of thrombocytopenic patients with and without splenomegaly (58% and 60%, respectively). There was no difference in TPO levels between thrombocytopenic and nonthrombocytopenic patients, and TPO levels were not related to the risk of thrombocytopenia on multivariable analysis. Significantly more thrombocytopenic than nonthrombocytopenic subjects had abnormal liver function tests, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension, and a decrease in serum albumin was significantly associated with thrombocytopenia (P < 0.005) on multivariable analysis.
Factors associated with liver disease in general are associated with thrombocytopenia in chronic hepatitis C. Peripheral platelet destruction or sequestration is the major mechanism for thrombocytopenia, with hypersplenism being an important cause. Low TPO levels were not related to the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in this study.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The immature platelet fraction (IPF) measures the number of reticulated platelets in peripheral blood, and can be used to help determine if thrombocytopenia is secondary to low-platelet production or increased platelet turnover. The aim of this study was to determine whether abnormalities in the IPF were associated with thrombocytopenia in patients with hepatitis B virus-related chronic hepatitis (CHB). One hundred fifty-six patients with chronic hepatitis B, including 80 thrombocytopenia, 76 without thrombocytopenia, and 48 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The IPF percentages (IPF%) were measured using a XE-2100 multiparameter automatic hematology analyzer. We demonstrated that in the thrombocytopenic group, the IPF% was significantly increased compared with that in healthy controls and the non-thrombocytopenic group (both p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IPF%, splenomegaly, and the model for end-stage liver disease score were independent predictors for thrombocytopenia (both p < 0.001). High IPF% during the course of thrombocytopenia suggests that platelet destruction/sequestration due to hypersplenism is a major factor contributing to thrombocytopenia in patients with CHB.Platelets 09/2013; DOI:10.3109/09537104.2013.832742 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelation between splenic siderotic nodules, hypersplenism and liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The splenic enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography (ESWAN) and conventional magnetic resonance images of 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were retrospectively studied and the ESWAN images were graded. The distribution and prevalence of the image grades for patients with and without hypersplenism were evaluated. In addition, the splenic volume and the distribution of Child-Pugh and albumin scores were compared between patients with and without siderotic nodules, and the correlation between splenic volume and the ESWAN image grades were evaluated in the patients with siderotic nodules. The ESWAN images revealed splenic siderotic nodules in 24 patients. The distribution and prevalence of the ESWAN image grades were demonstrated to be significantly different (P<0.001) between patients with and without hypersplenism. Furthermore, significant differences were observed between patients with and without siderotic nodules with regard to splenic volume and the distribution of Child-Pugh and serum albumin scores (P<0.001). No significant correlation was demonstrated between splenic volume and the ESWAN image grades (P>0.05). In conclusion, a higher prevalence of splenic siderotic nodules (72.7%) was observed using the ESWAN sequence, in comparison with results from previous studies, obtained using the T1-spoiled gradient echo sequence. The presence of splenic siderotic nodules was consistent with the occurrence of hypersplenism and was interrelated with reserved liver function.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 08/2013; 6(2):445-450. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1135 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reticulated platelets (RPs), immature platelets newly released from the bone marrow into the circulation, have a high content of ribonucleic acid and are larger and more active in thrombus formation. This review compiles articles that evaluated RP in order to establish their clinical significance. RPs increase when platelet production rises and decrease when production falls. As such, the measurement of circulating RPs allows the assessment of thrombocytopenia, i.e., bone marrow production or peripheral destruction. RPs are a promising laboratory tool for evaluation of idiopathic thrombocytopenia (differentiating hypoproduction from accelerated platelet destruction), chemotherapy and after stem cell transplantation (predicting platelet recovery) and thrombocytosis (estimating platelet turnover). Additional randomized and well controlled clinical studies are required to clearly establish the significance of circulating RPs in other clinical conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Clinica Chimica Acta 01/2015; 439C:143-147. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.024 · 2.76 Impact Factor