Expression and delivery of tetanus toxin fragment C fused to the N-terminal domain of SipB enhances specific immune responses in mice.
ABSTRACT Live attenuated bacteria can be used as a carrier for the delivery of foreign antigens to a host's immune system. The N-terminal domain of SipB, a translocon protein of the type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is required for secretion and outer membrane localization. In the present study, vaccine plasmids for antigen delivery in which the non-toxic tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC), which contains a T cell epitope, is fused to the N-terminal 160 amino acids of SipB were developed. It was found that the recombinant proteins are secreted into the culture media and localized to the bacterial surface. TTFC-specific antibody responses are significantly increased in mice orally immunized with attenuated S. Typhimurium BRD509 strains carrying TTFC delivery plasmids. When the TTFC delivery cassettes were introduced into a low copy vector, the plasmid was stably maintained in the BRD509 strain and induced an immune response to the TTFC antigen in mice. These results suggest that expression and delivery of heterologous antigens fused to the N-terminus of SipB enhance the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, and that the N-terminal domain of SipB can be used as a versatile delivery system for foreign antigens.
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ABSTRACT: This protocol describes the use of sortase-mediated reactions to label the N terminus of any given protein of interest. The sortase recognition sequence, LPXTG (for Streptococcus aureus sortase A) or LPXTA (for Staphylococcus pyogenes sortase A), can be appended to a variety of probes such as fluorophores, biotin or even to other proteins. The protein to be labeled acts as a nucleophile by attacking the intermediate formed between the probe containing the LPXTG/A motif and the sortase enzyme. If sortase, the protein of interest and a suitably functionalized label are available, the reactions usually require less than 3 h.Nature Protocol 09/2013; 8(9):1800-7. · 8.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are exploited by many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to deliver a set of effector proteins into host cytosol during cell entry. The T3SS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is composed of more than 20 proteins that constitute the membrane-associated base, needle and the tip complex at the distal end of the T3SS needle. Membrane docking and piercing between the T3SS and host cells is followed by the secretion of effector proteins. Therefore, a secretion hierarchy among the substrates of the T3SS is required. The secretion of the pore-forming translocase proteins SipB, SipC and SipD is controlled by the T3SS regulator protein, InvE. In an attempt to identify the regions of InvE that are involved in the T3SS regulation, it was observed that the secretion of SipB, SipC and SipD was inhibited when the C-terminal 52 amino acids were removed from InvE. In addition, InvE derivatives lacking the N-terminal 30 and 100 residues were unable to secrete translocases into the culture medium. Interestingly, in the absence of the N-terminal 180 residues of InvE, SipD is unstable, resulting in the hypersecretion of SipB. We also found that both the type III secretion signal of SipB and SptP were functionally interchangeable with the first 30 amino acids of InvE, which could allow the secretion of a reporter protein. These results suggest that InvE may have two functional domains responsible for regulating the secretion of translocases: N-terminal secretion signal and C-terminal regulatory domain.Microbiology 01/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor