[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two major vector-borne diseases of northern temperate regions, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB), show very different epidemiological patterns, but both have increased significantly in incidence since the 1980s. Insight into the temporal dynamics of TBE, gained from statistical analysis of spatial patterns integrated with biological explanation, suggests that the recent increases in TBE cases in Central Europe and the Baltic States may have arisen largely from changes in human behaviour that have brought more people into contact with infected ticks. Under forecast climate change scenarios, it is predicted that enzootic cycles of TBE virus may not survive along the southern edge of their present range, e.g. in Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary, where case numbers are indeed decreasing. New foci, however, are predicted and have been observed in Scandinavia. At the same time, human impact on the landscape, increasing both the habitat and wildlife hosts of ticks, has allowed tick populations to multiply significantly. This probably accounts for a genuine emergence of LB, with its high potential transmission rate, in both the USA and Europe, although the rate of emergence has been exaggerated by improved surveillance and diagnosis.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 08/2001; 356(1411):1045-56. · 6.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During 1993 through 1996, 2,313 cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by 42 states and the District of Columbia through the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS). During this same interval, 1,752 case report forms (CRFs) were submitted to CDC and 1,253 (70%) of the cases were categorized as confirmed RMSF by laboratory testing. On the basis of analyses performed with NETSS data, the average annual RMSF incidence during 1993-1996 was 2.2 cases per million persons; the incidence rose from 1.8 in 1993 to 3.3 per million persons in 1996. Incidence for confirmed cases was highest among children 5-9 years of age (3.7 per million) and lowest among individuals older than 70 years of age (1.4 per million). The south Atlantic region accounted for the largest proportion of confirmed cases (52%). The case-fatality rate was highest among persons 70 years of age and older (9.0%) and lowest among adults 40-49 years of age (0.6%).
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 63(1-2):21-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of feeding duration on pathogen transmission was studied for individual ticks infected with either laboratory or field strains of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and field strains of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, an agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Infected nymphal Ixodes scapularis were allowed to feed individually on mice, and equal numbers were removed at 24-h intervals for < or =96 h. Mice were assayed for infection by culture, serologic testing, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Fed ticks were assayed by culture or PCR analysis. Transmission of B. burgdorferi did not occur during the first 24 h among 66 attempts, with maximum transmission occurring between 48 and 72 h. A model estimating the probability of infection from individual ticks removed by patients in a Lyme disease-endemic area yielded an overall probability of 4.6%. Infected I. scapularis nymphs transmitted E. phagocytophila within 24 h in 2 of 3 attempts, which indicates that daily tick removal may not be adequate to prevent human infection with this agent.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2001; 183(5):773-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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