Families and clans of cysteine peptidases
ABSTRACT The known cysteine peptidases have been classified into 35 sequence families. We argue that these have arisen from at least five separate evolutionary origins, each of which is represented by a set of one or more modern-day families, termed a clan. Clan CA is the largest, containing the papain family, C1, and others with the Cys/His catalytic dyad. Clan CB (His/Cys dyad) contains enzymes from RNA viruses that are distantly related to chymotrypsin. The peptidases of clan CC are also from RNA viruses, but have papain-like Cys/His catalytic sites. Clans CD and CE contain only one family each, those of interleukin-1-converting enzyme and adenovirus L3 proteinase, respectively. A few families cannot yet be assigned to clans. In view of the number of separate origins of enzymes of this type, one should be cautious in generalising about the catalytic mechanisms and other properties of cysteine peptidases as a whole. In contrast, it may be safer to generalise for enzymes within a single family or clan.
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ABSTRACT: The cysteine proteases of Porphyromonas gingivalis are extracellular products of an important etiological agent in periodontal diseases. Many of the in vitro actions of these enzymes are consistent with the observed deregulated inflammatory and immune features of the disease. They are significant targets of the immune responses of affected individuals and are viewed by some as potential molecular targets for therapeutic approaches to these diseases. Furthermore, they appear to represent a complex group of genes and protein products whose transcriptional and translational control and maturation pathways may have a broader relevance to virulence determinants of other persistent bacterial pathogens of human mucosal surfaces. As a result, the genetics, chemistry, and virulence-related properties of the cysteine proteases of P. gingivalis have been the focus of much research effort over the last ten years. In this review, we describe some of the progress in their molecular characterization and how their putative biological roles, in relation to the in vivo growth and survival strategies of P. gingivalis, may also contribute to the periodontal disease process.Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 02/2001; 12(3):192-216.
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ABSTRACT: A novel metastasis-associated gene was identified with a differential display system in murine carcinoma cells showing a high rate of metastasis to the liver. A human homologue was also identified using a PCR-based strategy. The protein coded by this gene was named cystatin-like metastasis-associated protein (CMAP) and showed 22.1-28.1% homology to human family 2 cystatins. CMAP mRNA was selectively overexpressed in all murine liver metastatic tumors but not in any pulmonary metastatic tumors examined. Transfection of CMAP antisense DNA into highly metastatic liver cells greatly decreased their metastatic potential and CMAP expression, indicating that CMAP is involved in liver metastatic ability after intravasation of malignant cells. The human homologue of CMAP was found to be expressed in various human cancer cell lines established from malignant tumors. Our discovery of this novel liver metastasis-related gene indicates a new approach to the diagnosis and/or prevention of liver metastasis of human cancer.Cancer Research 02/1999; 59(1):151-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: TRAIL (APO-2 ligand) and CD95L (CD95/APO-1/Fas ligand) share the highest homology among the TNF family members and the ability to induce apoptosis. These similarities raise the issue of a potential functional redundancy between the two ligands. We have previously shown that CD95L-resistant cells may be sensitive to TRAIL, even though apoptosis induced by both ligands is blocked by caspase inhibitors. Here we investigated TRAIL protein expression in cells of T and B origin and compared its regulation of expression with that of CD95L. A rabbit antibody (Ab) to a peptide sequence in the extracellular region of TRAIL identified recombinant TRAIL (rTRAIL) produced by Sf9 cells as a protein of approximately 32-33 kDa and soluble rTRAIL as a 19-20-kDa protein. In human and mouse cells, the Ab identified a 33-34-kDa and an additional 19-20-kDa protein only in human cells. Both transformed cells of the T and B lymphocyte lineage were found to react with the anti-TRAIL Ab by immunoblot analysis and surface staining. The majority of the cells analyzed co-expressed TRAIL and CD95L. Two cell lines showed a mirror-pattern, one being TRAILhigh CD95Llow and the other TRAILlow CD95Lhigh, thus suggesting the existence of a cell type-specific regulation of expression of the two ligands. Differently from CD95L, surface TRAIL was not up-regulated by any of the metalloprotease inhibitors tested, independently of the cell type analyzed. Conversely, reactivity with the anti-TRAIL but not with the anti-CD95L Ab was enhanced by cysteine protease inhibitors. An in vitro cleavage assay showed that generation of soluble rTRAIL was dependent on the functional activity of cysteine proteases, as it was blocked by leupeptin and E64 but not by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. Thus, even though TRAIL and CD95L share structural and functional properties, they have unique properties as they differ in their regulatory pathways, i.e. cell-type-dependent expression and sensitivity to protease inhibitors.European Journal of Immunology 03/1998; 28(3):973-82. · 4.97 Impact Factor