Families and clans of cysteine peptidases
ABSTRACT The known cysteine peptidases have been classified into 35 sequence families. We argue that these have arisen from at least five separate evolutionary origins, each of which is represented by a set of one or more modern-day families, termed a clan. Clan CA is the largest, containing the papain family, C1, and others with the Cys/His catalytic dyad. Clan CB (His/Cys dyad) contains enzymes from RNA viruses that are distantly related to chymotrypsin. The peptidases of clan CC are also from RNA viruses, but have papain-like Cys/His catalytic sites. Clans CD and CE contain only one family each, those of interleukin-1-converting enzyme and adenovirus L3 proteinase, respectively. A few families cannot yet be assigned to clans. In view of the number of separate origins of enzymes of this type, one should be cautious in generalising about the catalytic mechanisms and other properties of cysteine peptidases as a whole. In contrast, it may be safer to generalise for enzymes within a single family or clan.
- SourceAvailable from: Joseph Aduse-Opoku[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cysteine proteases of Porphyromonas gingivalis are extracellular products of an important etiological agent in periodontal diseases. Many of the in vitro actions of these enzymes are consistent with the observed deregulated inflammatory and immune features of the disease. They are significant targets of the immune responses of affected individuals and are viewed by some as potential molecular targets for therapeutic approaches to these diseases. Furthermore, they appear to represent a complex group of genes and protein products whose transcriptional and translational control and maturation pathways may have a broader relevance to virulence determinants of other persistent bacterial pathogens of human mucosal surfaces. As a result, the genetics, chemistry, and virulence-related properties of the cysteine proteases of P. gingivalis have been the focus of much research effort over the last ten years. In this review, we describe some of the progress in their molecular characterization and how their putative biological roles, in relation to the in vivo growth and survival strategies of P. gingivalis, may also contribute to the periodontal disease process.Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 02/2001; 12(3):192-216.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. This report describes the presence of cysteine proteinase activity in the cotton boll weevil. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors from different sources were assayed against total A. grandis proteinases but, unexpectedly, no inhibitor tested was particularly effective. In order to screen for active inhibitors against the boll weevil, a cysteine proteinase cDNA (Agcys1) was isolated from A. grandis larvae using degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Sequence analysis showed significant homologies with other insect cysteine proteinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that the mRNA encoding the proteinase was transcribed mainly in the gut of larvae. No mRNA was detected in neonatal larvae, pupae, or in the gut of the adult insect, suggesting that Agcys1 is an important cysteine proteinase for larvae digestion. The isolated gene will facilitate the search for highly active inhibitors towards boll weevil larvae that may provide a new opportunity to control this important insect pest.Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2004; 68(6):1235-42. · 1.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green (unkilned) malt and germinating seeds from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows multiple proteolytic activities. A developmental study shows that the several green malt beta-amylase-degrading activities appear at around day 2 of germination. The several activities appear to increase and decrease through 7 days of germination in a coordinated fashion. Gels treated with class-specific proteinase inhibitors show that serine-class proteinase activities are responsible for barley beta-amylase degradation seen on the zymograms. Western blot analysis also shows that proteolytic enzymes recovered from 1-D electrophoretic gels degrade barley beta-amylase, and that the degradation is inhibited by PMSF. This is the first demonstration that malt proteinases are capable of degrading important metabolic enzymes in germinating barley, and the first postulated physiological role for the serine class proteinases in barley malt.Journal of Cereal Science. 01/2008;