Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells: Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappa B
ABSTRACT Excessive oxidative stress has been implicated in the induction of cell death in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.
In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in rat C6 glioma cells was used as a model system for studying the molecular events associated with oxidative
stress-induced cell death in glial cells. We demonstrate that exposure of C6 glioma cells to H2O2 results in apoptotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, and caused activation of a member of the caspase-3-like
family of proteases resulting in cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, PARP. Furthermore, H2O2 induced a transient activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). Pre-treatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, (NAC), prevented both the activation of NFkB and the induction
of apoptosis by H2O2, suggesting a possible role for this transcription factor in oxidant-induced apoptosis in glial cells. Exposure of the cells
to H2O2 led to transient activation of both c-JunN-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase but has no effect on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Inhibition of p38
by SB203580 did not protect the cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis suggesting that activation of p38 is not essential for H2O2-mediated cell death in C6 glioma cells.
Article: Age and gender differences in the well-being of midlife and aging parents with children with mental health or developmental problems: report of a national study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents' mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of parents of children with disabilities. Compared to parents of non-disabled children, parents of disabled children experienced significantly higher levels of negative affect, marginally poorer psychological well-being, and significantly more somatic symptoms, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Mothers did not differ from fathers in their well-being. Older parents were significantly less likely to experience the negative effect of having a disabled child than younger parents, suggesting an age-related attenuation of the stress of non-normative parenting.Journal of Health and Social Behavior 10/2008; 49(3):301-16. · 2.72 Impact Factor
Article: Latina Mothers Caring for a Son or Daughter with Autism or Schizophrenia: Similarities, Differences and the Relationship Between Co-Residency and Maternal Well-Being.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this cross-sectional study, we examined similarities and differences in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being between Latina maternal caregivers of persons with autism (N=29) and schizophrenia (N=33). We also explored predictors of maternal outcomes and the relationship of co-residence to them. Regression analysis found that mothers of adults with schizophrenia had lower levels of psychological well-being than mothers of youth or adults with autism. For the overall sample of mothers, co-residing with their son or daughter was significantly related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Qualitative analysis of the nine mothers who lived apart from their son or daughter revealed that extreme behavior problems of the son or daughter and poor maternal health contributed to living apart. Despite overcoming these challenges, mothers expressed a profound sense of sadness about their son or daughters' living arrangements.Journal of Family Social Work 05/2010; 13(3):227-250.