Load scheduling for multiple quay cranes in port container terminals

Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing (Impact Factor: 1.73). 07/2006; 17(4):479-492. DOI: 10.1007/s10845-005-0020-y


This paper proposes a method to schedule loading operations when multiple yard cranes are operating in the same block. The
loading scheduling methods in this paper are based on a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing method, which consider
interferences between adjacent yard cranes. It attempts to minimize the make-span of the yard crane operation. We consider
the container handling time, the yard crane travel time, and the waiting time of each yard crane, when evaluating the makespan
of the loading operation by yard cranes. An encoding method considering the special properties of the optimal solution of
the problem is suggested. Numerical experiment was conducted to compare performances of the algorithms suggested in this study.

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    • "In many works presented in the past, the objective is to minimize the total (average ) vehicle waiting time (Ng and Mak, 2005a and 2005b; Kumar and Omkar, 2008; Guo et al., 2011); or to minimize the makespan (Jung and Kim, 2006; Lee et al., 2007), that is, the total time taken to finish a set of jobs by the YC. Minimizing vehicle waiting times helps vehicles to return to the QCs as soon as possible after they arrive at the yard blocks. "
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    ABSTRACT: In traditional approaches, the objective of yard crane (YC) dispatching is usually to minimize makespan of YC operations or to minimize vehicle waiting time. However, one of the most important objectives of terminal operation management is to minimize total weighted vessel turnaround time. We prove that minimizing the maximum tardiness of vehicle jobs from one vessel will minimize the vessel’s turnaround time. Therefore minimizing the total weighted maximum tardiness of all YCs’ jobs will minimize the total weighted vessel turnaround time. We propose algorithm MTWMT to minimize total weighted maximum job tardiness. We compare the performance of our algorithm with the optimal algorithms RBA* and MMS-RBA* from earlier studies. RBA* minimizes total vehicle waiting time while MMS-RBA* minimizes makespan. Experimental results confirm that MTWMT is most effective in reducing total weighted vessel turnaround time.
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 9335; 09/2015
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    • "Due to the problem complexity, MIP models were commonly employed just to formulate yard related problems while heuristic methods were proposed to find near-optimal solutions. Jung and Kim (2006) considered 2 YCs working in one shared zone to support vessels loadings with a GA and a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to minimize the makespan, i.e. the period between the starting time of the first YC operation and the finishing time of the last YC operation. Lee et al. (2007) considered 2 YCs working in 2 non-overlapping zones with a SA algorithm to minimize the makespan. "
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    ABSTRACT: Yard crane (YC) dispatching in the operational planning of container terminals usually aims to minimize makespan of YC operations or waiting time of vehicles. We propose that minimizing the maximum tardiness of vehicle jobs at yard blocks will minimize the operational delay of the longest quay crane (QC). This will minimize vessel turnaround time which is one of the most important objectives of container terminals. A provably optimal algorithm, MMT-RBA* to minimize maximum job tardiness, is presented to sequence the YC jobs. Jobs requiring reshuffling of other containers, often ignored in other studies, are handled by embedded simulation in our optimization algorithms. Another provably optimal algorithm, MMS-RBA* to minimize makespan, is also presented. Simulation experiments confirm that MMT-RBA* significantly outperforms the optimal algorithm RBA* to minimize vehicle waiting time from earlier studies and MMS-RBA* to minimize makespan in minimizing vessel turnaround time.
    Winter Simulation Conference 2014; 12/2014
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    • "The algorithms based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing approaches were proposed to schedule the travelling route of the yard cranes and number of containers to pick up in each yard bay. Jung et al. (2006) extended the problem to schedule the loading sequence of the quay cranes considering the interference of multiple yard cranes. A greedy randomized adaptive search procedure was proposed for constructing a schedule to minimize the makespan of the quay cranes. "
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    ABSTRACT: With advancements of quay side equipments and technologies, the bottleneck of port operations has moved from quay side to yard side. The yard management of a port has significant influences on the competitiveness of a port in the global shipping network. The research area of yard management has attracted a lot of attentions from both the academia and the industrial practitioners. This paper gives a comprehensive review for the studies on the yard management in container terminals. From three aspects, i.e., yard cranes management, yard vehicles management, and yard spaces management, this paper reports the advances in these three areas. Some future directions on the yard management researches are also discussed. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate more practically relevant researches in this emerging area.
    12/2013; 12(4). DOI:10.7232/iems.2013.12.4.289
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