Bipolar Disorder: A Neurobiological Synthesis
ABSTRACT Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common, chronic, recurrent mental illness affecting 1–2% of the general population (Goodwin and
Jamison 2007). Clinically, it is one of the most debilitating medical illnesses, and a growing number of recent studies indicate that
outcome is quite poor for many individuals with BPD. Afflicted patients generally experience high rates of relapse, a chronic
recurrent course, lingering residual symptoms, cognitive and functional impairment, psychosocial disability, and diminished
well-being. Furthermore, the disorder is frequently unrecognized, misdiagnosed, and mismanaged, and much still remains unknown
about its pathophysiology.