Transkulturelle Aspekte der Depression
ABSTRACT Lange Zeit wurde angenommen, dass depressive Erkrankungen ein klassisch westliches, für die Industriestaaten spezifisches
Problem seien. Jedoch zeigte eine Untersuchung der Weltbank bereits 1993, dass die Depression in Entwicklungsländern bereits
an fünfter Stelle in der Liste der Erkrankungen stand, die den stärksten Teil zum Global Burden of Disease (GBD) beitragen.
Affekt- und Verhaltensstörungen sowie somatische Beschwerden stellen die 3 zentralen Symptomkategorien der Depression dar.
In westlichen Kulturen gilt die Störung des Affektes als Hauptmerkmal einer Depression, in anderen Kulturen können andere
Symptome im Vordergrund stehen. Für eine optimale Behandlung ist es wichtig, dass die Behandelnden den kulturellen Hintergrund
ihrer Patienten bei Diagnostik und Therapie beachten. Zu den Zielen der transkulturellen Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie zählt
nicht nur die Entwicklung kulturadäquater Behandlungskonzepte und Einrichtungen, sondern auch die Erweiterung des Wissens
über die Psychopathologie und Epidemiologie psychischer Erkrankungen in Migrantengruppen sowie die Untersuchung der Nutzung
von Versorgungsmöglichkeiten durch diese.
For many decades it was assumed that depressive disorders are mainly a problem of Western societies. However, a World Bank
report published in 1993 revealed that Major Depression is already the fifth leading contributor to the Global Burden of Disease
(GBD) among women in developmentally disadvantaged countries. The core symptoms of depression are disorders of affect, conduct
and somatic complaints. In Western societies, the key symptom of depression is regarded to be a disorder of affect. However,
in other cultural settings, different symptoms may be more central for depression. Nowadays mental health specialists have
regular contact with patients from different cultural backgrounds. In order to achieve optimal results in diagnosing and treating
mental disorders, it is important to consider the cultural background of a patient and her or his explanatory model of the
disease. Transcultural psychiatry and psychotherapy aims at developing culturesensitive concepts for treatment and mental
health services and tries to increase insight in culture-related psychopathology and epidemiology.
- Zeitschrift Fur Psychiatrie Psychologie Und Psychotherapie - Z PSYCHIATR PSYCHOL PSYCHOTHE. 01/2010; 58(3):165-171.
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ABSTRACT: In Europe, a considerable proportion of children and adolescents is affected by depressive symptoms, impairing their everyday life and social functioning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the depressive symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany, addressing risk factors, comorbidity, and impact of depressive symptoms on everyday life. In the BELLA study, the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative sample of young people aged 7-17 years was enrolled. Depressiveness, assessed by the CES-DC, as well as other mental health problems were examined in the context of risk and protective factors. Depressive symptoms showed high prevalence in parent- and self-reports. Higher depression scores were found in those with a high number of psychosocial risks existing in the family, and they decreased as the number of protective factors the children and adolescents had at their disposal increased. Although only half of the boys and girls with high depression scores were regarded as significantly impaired, all of them had a much higher risk for additional mental health problems. Furthermore, their health-related quality of life was limited compared to their peers who had low depression scores. To differentiate between clinically significant depression and milder forms, it is necessary to take into account the different perspectives of children and their parents. Prevention and intervention should acknowledge the widespread distribution of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents, the high comorbidity of depressive and other mental health problems and the impact of depression on the aspects of everyday life.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2008; 17 Suppl 1:71-81. · 3.70 Impact Factor