Article

The chemical ecology of Harmonia axyridis

Université de Toulouse, ENFA, EDB (Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique), 2 route de Narbonne, 31320 Castanet Tolosan, France; CNRS, EDB (Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique), 31062 Toulouse, France
BioControl (Impact Factor: 2.22). 01/2011; 56(4):643-661. DOI: 10.1007/s10526-011-9376-4

ABSTRACT We review the chemical ecology of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis from the perspective of its invasiveness and the deleterious effects it exerts in the regions it has colonised. We outline
the nature and quantification of its chemical defence, and discuss the protection this provides against natural enemies, particularly
intraguild predators. We consider the role of infochemicals in location of prey, intraspecific communication and intraguild
interactions. We also discuss the role of prey allelochemicals in relation to H. axyridis extreme dietary generalism. Harmonia axyridis poses a number of practical problems for human health and well-being, including “ladybug taint” wine contamination and problems
resulting from large aggregations overwintering in buildings. We consider chemical insights into these issues and, in particular,
how attractants and repellents might help manage H. axyridis populations through a push–pull strategy. We conclude by discussing future perspectives for research.

KeywordsChemical defence–Coccinellidae–Foraging–Semiochemicals–Ladybug wine taint–Push–pull strategy

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    ABSTRACT: The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), exhibits a gregarious behavior during unfavorable winter conditions. Although this behavior is currently described as a phenomenon occurring only during winter, aggregations can also be observed outside overwintering conditions. However, the substrate markings previously highlighted as being involved in the wintry aggregation of this exotic species do not seem to be used by non-overwintering individuals to aggregate. This fact suggests then that other cues are responsible for the induction of this behavior. In this work, we have tested the hypothesis that direct contact between non-overwintering individuals stimulates the establishment of clusters. Binary choice experiments highlighted the involvement of elytral cuticular compounds in this phenomenon. Chromatographic analyses showed that the active extracts contained mainly hydrocarbons, including saturated, mono-unsaturated, and di-unsaturated homologues. Physical contact also seems to be involved in the non-overwintering aggregative behavior of H. axyridis, but to a lesser extent than these natural compounds. These findings could eventually be used to develop new control methods of these pest populations and so, reduce the adverse impacts it causes on biodiversity
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    ABSTRACT: Harmonia axyridis has been introduced as a biological control agent in Europe and the USA. Since its introduction, it has established and spread, and it is now regarded as an invasive alien species. It has been suggested that intraguild predation is especially important for the invasion success of H. axyridis. The aim of this study was to compare the intraguild predation behaviour of three ladybird species (Coccinella septempunctata, Adalia bipunctata, and H. axyridis). Predation behaviour was investigated in semi-field experiments on small lime trees (Tilia platyphyllos). Two fourth-instar larvae placed on a tree rarely made contact during 3-hour observations. When placed together on a single leaf in 23%-43% of the observations at least one contact was made. Of those contacts 0%-27% resulted in an attack. Harmonia axyridis attacked mostly heterospecifics, while A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata attacked heterospecifics as often as conspecifics. In comparison with A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata, H. axyridis was the most successful intraguild predator as it won 86% and 44% of heterospecific battles against A. bipunctata and C. septempunctata respectively, whilst A. bipunctata won none of the heterospecific battles and C. septempunctata won only the heterospecific battles against A. bipunctata. Coccinella septempunctata dropped from a leaf earlier and more often than the other two species but was in some cases able to return to the tree, especially under cloudy conditions. The frequency with which a species dropped did not depend on the species the larva was paired with. The results of these semi-field experiments confirm that H. axyridis is a strong intraguild predator as a consequence of its aggressiveness and good defence against predation from heterospecific species. The fact that H. axyridis is such a strong intraguild predator helps to explain its successful establishment as invasive alien species in Europe and the USA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40681. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10526-011-9382-6#page-1 Originally distributed in northeast Asia, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is now found throughout much of the temperate zone. In its native area, H. axyridis maintains stable populations in heterogeneous and temporary habitats because of its great ability to find prey and reproduce, coupled with density-dependent and self-regulatory population regulation. A negative correlation of H. axyridis on the biodiversity of the aphidophagous community has been observed in its native range. The decrease in biodiversity may be mainly caused by the wider range of habitats available to H. axyridis than to the coexisting species. From a theoretical perspective, density-dependent regulation of H. axyridis populations, e.g., cannibalism, may be more important in maintaining the H. axyridis-dominated system, probably than is intraguild predation. Habitat heterogeneity may also be important to the coexistence of H. axyridis and other predators in both native and invaded areas. KeywordsCannibalism–Coccinellidae–Coleoptera–Density dependence–Habitat heterogeneity–Population dynamics
    BioControl 04/2011; 56(4):613-621. · 2.22 Impact Factor

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