Biodiversity of littoral nematodes from two sites in the Gulf of California

Hydrobiologia (Impact Factor: 2.21). 07/2007; 586(1):179-189. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-006-0624-z

ABSTRACT The Gulf of California, Mexico, consists of unique environmental conditions resulting in a rich array of biological diversity.
Nematodes are present in most marine sediments and are probably the most abundant metazoans. This research analyses and compares
nematode biodiversity in two shallow, littoral locations of the Gulf and compares the results with other Pacific and Atlantic
faunae. Samples collected in Punta Estrella and Santa Clara were processed for nematode extraction by standard methods. A
total of eighty genera were identified, sixty-seven occurring in coarser sediments at Punta Estrella and fifty-five in more
silty sediments at Santa Clara. Nematode abundance was higher at the latter location, on average. The region was not especially
high or low in diversity compared to other littoral sites, and was most similar to locations in Europe with a corresponding
ecology but at temperate latitudes.

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    ABSTRACT: Three species: Oxyonchus orientalis sp. nov., O. sakchalinensis sp. nov., and O. nicholasi sp. nov. (Thoracostomopsidae: Nematoda) are described and illustrated with the aid of light microscopy and laser-scanning microscopy pictures from sediments of Far Eastern Seas (the one former species from the Sea of Japan, Eastern Russia and the two latter species from the Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin Island). Generic diagnosis is emended for identification of Oxyonchus. Oxyonchus orientalis sp. nov. has short cephalic sensillae (0.6 cephalic diameters), strongly developed broad mandibular plate with irregular arrangement of numerous small denticles. Oxyonchus sakhalinensis sp. nov. is particularly characterized by the weakly short cephalic capsule, and the rounded thin mandibular plates with 10 denticles. Oxyonchus nicholasi sp. nov. can be differentiated by the structure of the cephalic armament (well developed capsule, fenestrae and incisions), numerous long cervical setae and tail shape. The distribution patterns of the various Oxyonchus species was suggested.
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    ABSTRACT: Xyala finneyae sp. n. from the intertidal zone in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species is characterised by the first ring of cuticular crests being at least twice as long as the crests on the remaining annules, vulva at 70-76% of body length from anterior end, sexual dimorphism in amphid fovea size with females having a smaller amphidial opening. Xyala finneyae sp. n. is most similar to the type species, X. striata, and to X. oxybiotica. It differs from the former in having the first ring of crests markedly longer than all subsequent ones, in having shorter outer labial and cephalic setae on the lip region (8-9 and 15-18 vs 12 and 22 μm, respectively), in a more anterior position of vulva (V = 70-76 vs 79-81) and in shorter spicules (29-31 vs 44-47 μm). From X. oxybiotica, it differs in the more spherical lip region with thinner cuticle on the lips (vs lips more protruding anteriad and with thicker cuticle in optical section), shorter outer labial and cephalic setae on the lip region (8-9 and 15-18 vs 13 and 23 μm, respectively), a more anterior vulva (V = 70-76 vs 81-89) and shorter spicules (29-31 vs 35 μm).
    Nematology 11/2010; 12(5):673-680. DOI:10.1163/138855409X12571623969682 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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