The antileukemic efficacy of an immunotoxin composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy-1 antibody disulfide linked to the ribosome-inactivating protein gelonin
ABSTRACT We prepared an immunoconjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the Thy-1 antigen and the ribosome-inactivating protein gelonin linked by a disulfide bond. This immunotoxin preparation was judged to contain less than 5% free antibody or gelonin. It was highly toxic in vitro in an antigen-specific fashion to the Thy-1 expressing RADA leukemia of A/J mice. The IC50 of this preparation on RADA in vitro was 10–12
M, while the IC50 on the Thy-1 negative S1509a fibrosarcoma of A/J mice was 10–7
M. The toxicity of this immunoconjugate was also measured in a direct proliferation assay and it was found that a 4-h exposure and a 24-h exposure of RADA cells to a 1 nM concentration of immunotoxin killed 90% and 99.9% of cells, respectively. Furthermore, efficacy in vitro was not due to the intrinsic susceptibility of RADA cells to tis type of immunotoxin, as one prepared with gelonin and an antibody recognizing the TLa determinant on this leukemia had no efficacy in vitro. Clearance of the anti-Thy-1-gelonin immunoconjugate from the circulation of A/J mice after i.v. injection was rapid, especially during the first 8 h after injection, possibly because of binding to Thy-1 expressing tissue. Delivery of immunoconjugate to ascitic tumor in vivo was substantially better if the immunoconjugate was given by i.p. injection, rather than by the i.v. route. When given either i.v. or i.p. at the time of i.p. tumor inoculation in vivo, the anti-Thy-1-gelonin immunotoxin showed potency in an antigen-specific fashion; while this immunoconjugate prolonged survival and frequently cured RADA-inoculated mice, neither anti-Thy-1 antibody, gelonin, a combination of the two, nor immunotoxin of irrelevant specificity had any significant effect on survival. Anti-Thy-1-gelonin also had no effect on survival of A/J mice inoculated i.p. with S1509a. Furthermore, it was determined that a single i.p. dose of anti-Thy-1-gelonin killed 90% to 99% cells in vivo, and that the immunoconjugate was about as effective in this model as either adriamycin or cytoxan.