Quantification of anthocyanins in black carrot extracts ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and evaluation of their color properties
ABSTRACT Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars and carrots of the same cultivar. Total anthocyanin amounts ranged from 45.4mg/kg dry matter to 17.4g/kg dry matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantification of individual anthocyanins in roots of different black carrot cultivars. The determination of color properties in the extracts under various pH conditions proved black carrot anthocyanins to be applicable as natural food colorants also for low-acid food commodities, whereas a considerable loss of color was noted under nearly neutral conditions. Additionally, relatively high saccharide contents were found in almost all cultivars which may be disadvantageous when coloring concentrates are produced from carrot roots.
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ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins derived from purple carrots were extracted, and identified by using HPLC. Extracted pigments from purple carrots are used as alternative natural red colorants for preparing hard candy and sweet jelly and also red carrot pigment used as natural antioxidant on sunflower oil to delay the rancidity of sunflower oil. Purple carrots contain 168.7 mg anthocyanin/100 g on fresh weight basis, where the major constituents were Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside acylated with ferulic acid (33.65%) followed by Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside acylated with coumaric acid (29.85%) and Cyanidin-3-xylosyl-galactoside (28.70%) as determined by HPLC. Dextrin was the best carrier for purple carrots anthocyanin pigment followed by cellulose, soluble starch and glucose respectively. On the other hand, the highest pigment color stability of anthocyanin derived from purple carrots was obtained at pH values ranged between 1.0 and 4.0 and temperatures ranged between 40 and 80 °C, while the degradation ratio of anthocyanin being 15% of total pigments after 180 min at 100 °C. Antioxidant activities of anthocyanin from purple carrots were assessed by determining peroxide value on sunflower oil during 7 days at 60 °C. Sunflower oil contained 1000 ppm purple carrots extract showed lower peroxide value being (7.90) than using 200 ppm synthetic antioxidant (BHT) (8.38) meq/kg. Analysis of variance for sensory evaluation of prepared hard candy and sweet jelly indicated that there were no significant differences for hard candy contains 0.30% and sweet jelly 0.20% anthocyanins pigments from purple carrots and control hard candy and sweet jelly.06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2014.06.001
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ABSTRACT: The aim of an experiment conducted in 2006–2008 was to determine the effect of soil fertilization with Crop Care on the yield and chemical composition of carrot culti-vars with orange-and purple-colored storage roots. The yield and chemical composition of three carrot cultivars: 'Florida F 1 ' with orange-colored roots, 'Deep Purple F 1 ' with purple-colored roots and 'Purple Haze F 1 ' with roots that have a purple cortex and an or-ange core were compared in this study. Plants were grown in control soil with sufficient quantities of nutrients to support the development of carrot roots as well as in soil addi-tionally fertilized with Crop Care. The results of the study showed that carrots of cv. 'Florida F 1 ' produced a much higher total yield and marketable yield than carrots of cv. 'Deep Purple F 1 ' and 'Purple Haze F 1 '. Additional fertilization significantly increased the marketable yield of the carrots. The edible parts of purple root cultivars were character-ized by a higher content of dry matter, L-ascorbic acid and total carbohydrates. The appli-cation of the Crop Care fertilizer significantly increased the dry matter content of carrots. Roots of cv. 'Deep Purple F 1 ' contained the highest levels of N, K and Mg, while cv. Flor-ida F 1 was most abundant in Ca and Na.