Quantification of anthocyanins in black carrot extracts ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and evaluation of their color properties
ABSTRACT Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars and carrots of the same cultivar. Total anthocyanin amounts ranged from 45.4mg/kg dry matter to 17.4g/kg dry matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantification of individual anthocyanins in roots of different black carrot cultivars. The determination of color properties in the extracts under various pH conditions proved black carrot anthocyanins to be applicable as natural food colorants also for low-acid food commodities, whereas a considerable loss of color was noted under nearly neutral conditions. Additionally, relatively high saccharide contents were found in almost all cultivars which may be disadvantageous when coloring concentrates are produced from carrot roots.
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ABSTRACT: Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage.International journal of food microbiology 06/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sixteen Indian commercial carrot cultivars were analyzed for variations in β-carotene, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using four in vitro assays viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays (TEAC). Additionally six colour attributes were evaluated. Among carrot cultivars, significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained with respect to antioxidant composition and antioxidant activity. Total phenols and total flavonoids varied from 7.98 to 291.48 mg/100g fresh weight (fw) and 3.00 to 111.70 mg/100g fw respectively. Chemometric tools like principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) were applied to understand possible classification Indian carrot cultivars based on colour properties, bioactive antioxidant compounds and antioxidant potentiality. PCA revealed that the first two components represented 92.9 % of the total variability in the total variation. AHC classified cultivars into four main groups on the basis of the measured parameters. Black coloured genotype was found to be rich source of phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanin with very high antioxidant activity. Orange cultivars were found to be rich sources for β-carotene compared to red & black cultivars.Food Research International 12/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor