Quantification of anthocyanins in black carrot extracts ( Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and evaluation of their color properties
ABSTRACT Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars and carrots of the same cultivar. Total anthocyanin amounts ranged from 45.4mg/kg dry matter to 17.4g/kg dry matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantification of individual anthocyanins in roots of different black carrot cultivars. The determination of color properties in the extracts under various pH conditions proved black carrot anthocyanins to be applicable as natural food colorants also for low-acid food commodities, whereas a considerable loss of color was noted under nearly neutral conditions. Additionally, relatively high saccharide contents were found in almost all cultivars which may be disadvantageous when coloring concentrates are produced from carrot roots.
- SourceAvailable from: Fatih TornukLebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 06/2015; 62(1):718-726. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.025 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Black carrot concentrate has gained increasing interest in recent years as a natural colourant due to its substantial content of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanins. Black carrot concentrate production includes several steps, some of which are milling, mashing, pressing, pasteurisation and concentration. In this study, every step of black carrot concentrate processing was investigated to elucidate both the quanti-tative and qualitative changes in antioxidative compounds using spectrophotometric, HPLC-based and LC-QTOF-MS-based analyses. The results obtained indicated that processing the raw black carrot mate-rial into its concentrate led to an overall reduction of 70%, 73% and 44% in total phenolic, total flavo-noid and total monomeric anthocyanin contents on a dry weight basis, respectively. Moreover, concentrate processing resulted in 67% and 71% decreases in total antioxidant capacity, determined using DPPH and CUPRAC methods, respectively, on dry weight basis. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis enabled the identification of ten phenolic components including seven anthocyanins and three phenolic acids. HPLC-based quantification of individual anthocyanins revealed cyanidin-3-xylosyl (feruloylglucosyl)galactoside as the major anthocyanin component.