Quantification of anthocyanins in black carrot extracts (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. Atrorubens Alef.) and evaluation of their colour properties

Hohenheim University, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
European Food Research and Technology (Impact Factor: 1.56). 01/2004; 219(5):479-486. DOI: 10.1007/s00217-004-0976-4


Pigment composition of 15 black carrot cultivars (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) was screened by HPLC-MS. Up to seven cyanidin glycosides, five of which were acylated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, were identified and quantified in the roots by HPLC-DAD. Contents of individual compounds indicated great differences in the potential of anthocyanin accumulation both between different cultivars and carrots of the same cultivar. Total anthocyanin amounts ranged from 45.4mg/kg dry matter to 17.4g/kg dry matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantification of individual anthocyanins in roots of different black carrot cultivars. The determination of color properties in the extracts under various pH conditions proved black carrot anthocyanins to be applicable as natural food colorants also for low-acid food commodities, whereas a considerable loss of color was noted under nearly neutral conditions. Additionally, relatively high saccharide contents were found in almost all cultivars which may be disadvantageous when coloring concentrates are produced from carrot roots.

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    • "It was reported that the anthocyanin content of black carrot cultivars was in the range of up to 1750 mg/kg fresh weight (Mazza & Miniati, 1993). The main active components of black carrots were cyanidin-based pigments, and the anthocyanin profile of black carrots was reported by several investigators (Kammerer et al., 2004). To overcome the disadvantages of replacing synthetic antioxidants and colorants with natural ones in meat and meat products , investigations have been focused on antioxidant effects and color properties of plant based materials such as rosemary extract, pomegranate rind and its' seed powder, kinnow rind, salt, green tea extract, orange fiber, pomegranate fruit juice. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, Turkish fermented sucuk samples were produced by incorporating of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/100 g black carrot concentrate (BCC) in the presence/absence of sodium nitrite and effects of BCC on some physicochemical, microbiological, bioactive, aroma, textural and sensory properties of sucuk were investigated after fermentation for 12 days. The highest total phenolic content value was determined in sucuk sample added with 2 g/100 g BCC and no nitrite and antiradical activities of the sucuk samples were significantly affected from addition of BCC. Incorporation of BCC did not show significant effect on the hardness values, while it improved the adhesiveness characteristics of the final product. Additionally, resilience values decreased with the increase of BCC concentration in the sample formulation. Volatile composition of the samples was influenced from nitrite and BCC levels in the sucuk samples and majority of the volatile compounds were terpenes. Increase of BCC concentration affected the exterior and interior a* values of the samples. All the sucuk samples had considerably acceptable sensory properties.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 06/2015; 62(1):718-726. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.025 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "g/100 g), glucose (1.10– 5.60 g/100 g) and fructose (1.00–34.36 g/100 g) (Kammerer et al., 2004). Turnip and bulgur flour are the other sugar sources for LAB. "
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    • "ith the find - ing that , in the targeted quantification , cyd - 3 - xyl - gal ( peak 2 in Fig . 2 ) was recorded to contribute 31% and 24% of total anthocyanin quantity in RAW and CON samples , respectively , which were close to the HPLC values obtained for the major anthocyanin peak . These results were in accordance with the results reported by Kammerer et al . ( 2004b ) for different black carrot varieties from different regions of Turkey . However , this second major anthocyanin peak , based on the HPLC results , was found to constitute only 2 – 3% of the total anthocyanin mass signal intensity in LC - MS records . This difference between LC - MS and HPLC results could be linked to the fact that the"
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    ABSTRACT: Black carrot concentrate has gained increasing interest in recent years as a natural colourant due to its substantial content of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanins. Black carrot concentrate production includes several steps, some of which are milling, mashing, pressing, pasteurisation and concentration. In this study, every step of black carrot concentrate processing was investigated to elucidate both the quanti-tative and qualitative changes in antioxidative compounds using spectrophotometric, HPLC-based and LC-QTOF-MS-based analyses. The results obtained indicated that processing the raw black carrot mate-rial into its concentrate led to an overall reduction of 70%, 73% and 44% in total phenolic, total flavo-noid and total monomeric anthocyanin contents on a dry weight basis, respectively. Moreover, concentrate processing resulted in 67% and 71% decreases in total antioxidant capacity, determined using DPPH and CUPRAC methods, respectively, on dry weight basis. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics analysis enabled the identification of ten phenolic components including seven anthocyanins and three phenolic acids. HPLC-based quantification of individual anthocyanins revealed cyanidin-3-xylosyl (feruloylglucosyl)galactoside as the major anthocyanin component.
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