Molecular Analysis of Structural Abnormalities in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Genome
ABSTRACT Rearrangements of the protooncogene RET (RET/PTC) and somatic mutations of the gene BRAF are the most common events in the etiopathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The rates of RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in different nodular formations of the thyroid gland (TG) have been estimated. Comparative expression analysis of the extracellular (EC) and tyrosine kinase (TK) domains of RET has shown that 14% (12 out of 85) of PTC cases are RET/PTC-positive, including one RFP/RET-, two RET/PTC3-, and seven RET/PTC1-positive tumors, as well as two unidentified chimeric RET/PTC oncogenes. The standard T1796A transversion in the gene BRAF has been found in 60% (55 out of 91) PTC cases with the use of amplification refractory mutation system–polymerase chain reaction (ARMS–PCR). Somatic mutation G1753A and deletion del1800_1811 have been identified in PTC for the first time. The absence of the BRAF mutations in RET/PTC-positive tumors allows these two genetic defects to be regarded as alternative mechanisms of the RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade activation in PTCs. In none of the three follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 11 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs), and 13 nodular goiters have either BRAF mutations or RET/PTC rearrangements been found. Thus, the RET/PTC chimeric oncogenes and BRAF somatic mutations are specific markers of PTC and can be used for the preoperative diagnosis of these tumors.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Activating somatic mutation of the BRAF (V600E) has been identified as the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with a variable frequency (32-87 %) in different series by different methods. The BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with various clinicopathological parameters. The mutation is an important factor for the management of the PTC patients. The objective of this study was to detect the BRAF (V600E) mutation in PTCs by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time PCR and to analyze the results with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: We performed genetic analysis of BRAF (V600E) by PNA clamp real-time PCR in 211 PTCs in Korea, stratified by clinicopathological parameters. RESULTS: The BRAF (V600E) mutation was detected in 90 % of PTC cases, and it occurred significantly more often in female patients than in male patients (p = 0.001). The clinicopathological parameters of age, tumor size, and disease stage were not associated with the BRAF (V600E) mutation, while extrathyroid invasion (p = 0.031), lymph nodal metastasis (p = 0.002), and tumor multiplicity (p = 0.020) were. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence (90 %) of the BRAF (V600E) mutation in this study is the highest ever reported, confirming the key role of this mutation in PTC tumorigenesis. The BRAF (V600E) mutation was associated with aggressive clinical behaviors including extrathyroid invasion, lymph nodal metastasis and tumor multifocality. The PNA clamp real-time PCR method for the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection is sensitive and is applicable in a clinical setting.Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the formation of fusion genes are common events in carcinogenesis. There are more than 440 known fusion genes found in both malignant and benign tumors. The mechanism of transcription induced chimerism (TIC) contributes to fusion transcripts in normal human tissues. However, there is no clarity about the role of TIC in carcinogenesis. Hybrid proteins resulting from chimeric genes regarded as ideal markers which are specific for disease entities can be potential targets for the treatment due to their key roles in malignant transformation. In some tumors fusion genes may play primary role, and in the others may represent an additional mechanism during subclonal selection. The aim is to briefly review and discuss the occurrence and biologic relevance of chimeric genes in hematologic malignant diseases, sarcomas and epithelial neoplasms.Molekuliarnaia biologiia 01/2011; 45(5):793-804.