Active learning for clinical text classification: is it better than random sampling?
ABSTRACT This study explores active learning algorithms as a way to reduce the requirements for large training sets in medical text classification tasks.
Three existing active learning algorithms (distance-based (DIST), diversity-based (DIV), and a combination of both (CMB)) were used to classify text from five datasets. The performance of these algorithms was compared to that of passive learning on the five datasets. We then conducted a novel investigation of the interaction between dataset characteristics and the performance results.
Classification accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for each algorithm at different sample sizes were generated. The performance of active learning algorithms was compared with that of passive learning using a weighted mean of paired differences. To determine why the performance varies on different datasets, we measured the diversity and uncertainty of each dataset using relative entropy and correlated the results with the performance differences.
The DIST and CMB algorithms performed better than passive learning. With a statistical significance level set at 0.05, DIST outperformed passive learning in all five datasets, while CMB was found to be better than passive learning in four datasets. We found strong correlations between the dataset diversity and the DIV performance, as well as the dataset uncertainty and the performance of the DIST algorithm.
For medical text classification, appropriate active learning algorithms can yield performance comparable to that of passive learning with considerably smaller training sets. In particular, our results suggest that DIV performs better on data with higher diversity and DIST on data with lower uncertainty.
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- "employed throughout the iterations; as a result, AL has shown varying performance across different datasets . "
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new active learning query strategy for information extraction, called Domain Knowledge Informativeness (DKI). Active learning is often used to reduce the amount of annotation effort required to obtain training data for machine learning algorithms. A key component of an active learning approach is the query strategy, which is used to iteratively select samples for annotation. Knowledge resources have been used in information extraction as a means to derive additional features for sample representation. DKI is, however, the first query strategy that exploits such resources to inform sample selection. To evaluate the merits of DKI, in particular with respect to the reduction in annotation effort that the new query strategy allows to achieve, we conduct a comprehensive empirical comparison of active learning query strategies for information extraction within the clinical domain. The clinical domain was chosen for this work because of the availability of extensive structured knowledge resources which have often been exploited for feature generation. In addition, the clinical domain offers a compelling use case for active learning because of the necessary high costs and hurdles associated with obtaining annotations in this domain. Our experimental findings demonstrated that 1) amongst existing query strategies, the ones based on the classification model’s confidence are a better choice for clinical data as they perform equally well with a much lighter computational load, and 2) significant reductions in annotation effort are achievable by exploiting knowledge resources within active learning query strategies, with up to 14% less tokens and concepts to manually annotate than with state-of-the-art query strategies.The 24th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2015), Melbourne, Australia; 10/2015
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- "More sophisticated means of choosing the most informative documents could avoid this problem and allow training on all of the annotated documents at each stage without risk of biasing the classifier. However, these methods tend to be much more computationally and algorithmically complex than the simple method that was effective here (Tong and Koller, 2002; Settles, 2010; Figueroa et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: The frequency and volume of newly-published scientific literature is quickly making manual maintenance of publicly-available databases of primary data unrealistic and costly. Although machine learning (ML) can be useful for developing automated approaches to identifying scientific publications containing relevant information for a database, developing such tools necessitates manually annotating an unrealistic number of documents. One approach to this problem, active learning (AL), builds classification models by iteratively identifying documents that provide the most information to a classifier. Although this approach has been shown to be effective for related problems, in the context of scientific databases curation, it falls short. We present Virk, an AL system that, while being trained, simultaneously learns a classification model and identifies documents having information of interest for a knowledge base. Our approach uses a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with input features derived from neuroscience-related publications from the primary literature. Using our approach, we were able to increase the size of the Neuron Registry, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, by a factor of 90%, a knowledge base of neuron-related information, in 3 months. Using standard biocuration methods, it would have taken between 1 and 2 years to make the same number of contributions to the Neuron Registry. Here, we describe the system pipeline in detail, and evaluate its performance against other approaches to sampling in AL.Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 12/2013; 7:38. DOI:10.3389/fninf.2013.00038
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study was to assess whether active learning strategies can be integrated with supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods, thus reducing the number of annotated samples, while keeping or improving the quality of disambiguation models. METHODS: We developed support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to disambiguate 197 ambiguous terms and abbreviations in the MSH WSD collection. Three different uncertainty sampling-based active learning algorithms were implemented with the SVM classifiers and were compared with a passive learner (PL) based on random sampling. For each ambiguous term and each learning algorithm, a learning curve that plots the accuracy computed from the test set as a function of the number of annotated samples used in the model was generated. The area under the learning curve (ALC) was used as the primary metric for evaluation. RESULTS: Our experiments demonstrated that active learners (ALs) significantly outperformed the PL, showing better performance for 177 out of 197 (89.8%) WSD tasks. Further analysis showed that to achieve an average accuracy of 90%, the PL needed 38 annotated samples, while the ALs needed only 24, a 37% reduction in annotation effort. Moreover, we analyzed cases where active learning algorithms did not achieve superior performance and identified three causes: (1) poor models in the early learning stage; (2) easy WSD cases; and (3) difficult WSD cases, which provide useful insight for future improvements. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that integrating active learning strategies with supervised WSD methods could effectively reduce annotation cost and improve the disambiguation models.Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 01/2013; 20(5). DOI:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001244 · 3.93 Impact Factor