Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy)
ABSTRACT The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: The association between type 1 diabetes and immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgA-D) has long been recognized in many populations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgA-D in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus all coming from a defined geographical area and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 150 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of one year were analyzed. A detailed history was obtained for each patient. Information was collected concerning age, gender, time of onset of diabetes, and presence of other autoimmune diseases. Out of 150 patients with type 1 diabetes, eight (5.3%) had a diagnosis of IgA-D. There were one female and seven male; all these patients were diagnosed by screening: none of them had history of recurrent infections. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in five patients (62%). Although other associated autoimmune disorders were found in a number of patients, there was no different prevalence rate in IgA deficient patients. This study shows the prevalence of IgA-D in Sicilian patients with type 1 diabetes as 5.3% which is much higher than reported in other Italian studies. Moreover, our data show a high prevalence of IgA-D in male gender and describe thyroiditis as the most frequent autoimmune disease present in these patients. Finally, in our case report, IgA-D diagnosis always followed routine IgA measurement when case finding for celiac disease with no history of recurrent infections in each patient.Diabetes & metabolism journal 04/2015; 39(2):132-136. DOI:10.4093/dmj.2015.39.2.132
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage.07/2013; 2013:127589. DOI:10.1155/2013/127589
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ABSTRACT: Over the last five decades the association between coeliac disease and other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease or diabetes mellitus type 1 has been well established through many studies and to this day is subject to on-going clinical and scientific investigation worldwide. While no link has been established between celiac disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus, coeliac disease is common in patients with type 1 diabetes. The improvement of symptoms in patients with both conditions through dietary intervention, in the form of a gluten free diet, has been widely described within the literature. Our objectives were to review and synthesise the current knowledge on the nutritional treatment for patients with both conditions.03/2014; 7(4):189-97.