Fumonisin FB1 treatment acts synergistically with methyl donor deficiency during rat pregnancy to produce alterations of H3- and H4-histone methylation patterns in fetuses.
ABSTRACT Prenatal folate and methyl donor malnutrition lead to epigenetic alterations that could enhance susceptibility to disease. Methyl-deficient diet (MDD) and fumonisin FB1 are risk factors for neural tube defects and cancers. Evidence indicates that FB1 impairs folate metabolism.
Folate receptors and four heterochromatin markers were investigated in rat fetuses liver derived from dams exposed to MDD and/or FB1 administered at a dose twice higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI = 2 μg/kg/day). Even though folate receptors transcription seemed up-regulated by methyl depletion regardless of FB1 treatment, combined MDD/FB1 exposure might reverse this up-regulation since folate receptors transcripts were lower in the MDD/FB1 versus MDD group. Methyl depletion decreased H4K20me3. Combined MDD/FB1 decreased H4K20me3 even more and increased H3K9me3. The elevated H3K9me3 can be viewed as a defense mechanism inciting the cell to resist heterochromatin disorganization. H3R2me2 and H4K16Ac varied according to this mechanism even though statistical significance was not consistent.
Considering that humans are exposed to FB1 levels above the PMTDI, this study is relevant because it suggests that low doses of FB1 interact with MDD thus contributing to disrupt the epigenetic landscape.
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ABSTRACT: Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides. They are toxic to animals and exert their effects through mechanisms involving disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisins are converted to their hydrolyzed analogs by alkaline cooking (nixtamalization). Both fumonisins and hydrolyzed fumonisins are found in nixtamalized foods such as tortillas, and consumption of tortillas has been implicated as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTD). Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) induced NTD when given (ip) to pregnant LM/Bc mice; however, neither the NTD induction potential of hydrolyzed fumonisin B(1) (HFB(1)) nor its affect on sphingolipid metabolism in pregnant mice have been reported. The teratogenic potential of FB(1) and HFB(1) was therefore compared using the LM/Bc mouse model. Dams were dosed (ip) with 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg (< or = 49 micromol/kg) body weight (bw) HFB(1) on embryonic day (E)7-E8. Negative and positive control groups were given vehicle or 10 mg/kg (14 micromol/kg) bw FB(1), respectively. The high dose of HFB(1) disrupted sphingolipid metabolism, albeit slightly, but did not cause maternal liver lesions or NTD (n = 8-10 litters per group). In contrast, 10 mg/kg bw FB(1) markedly disrupted maternal sphingolipid metabolism, caused hepatic apoptosis in the dams, increased fetal death rates, and decreased fetal weights. Furthermore, NTD were found in all FB(1)-exposed litters (n = 10), and 66 +/- 24% of the fetuses were affected. The findings indicate that HFB(1) does not cause NTD in the sensitive LM/Bc mouse model and only weakly disrupts sphingolipid metabolism at doses up to sevenfold higher (micromole per kilogram body weight basis) than the previously reported lowest observed adverse effect level for FB(1).Toxicological Sciences 09/2009; 112(2):459-67. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been reported as an effective mechanism on therapy in neoplastic diseases. Among HDAC inhibitors, Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic Acid (VPA) prevent the tumorigenesis in rodent and human models. Malformations as neural tube and axial skeletal defects are well-known VPA side effects. Recent hypotheses suggest the HDAC inhibitor activity as the teratogenic mechanism of VPA. The teratogenic potency of TSA is, at the moment, unknown. The aim of the present work is to investigate the HDAC inhibition on embryos exposed in utero to TSA or VPA and to compare the teratogenic potential of these two molecules on the axial skeleton morphogenesis. Pregnant CD mice were i.p. treated on day 8 post coitum (9.00 a.m.) with 400 mg/kg VPA or with 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg TSA. Embryos explanted 1 hr after the treatment from some females exposed to 400 mg/kg VPA or to 16 mg/kg TSA were processed for Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis, in order to evaluate the histone hyperacetylation in the total embryo homogenates and to visualize the hyperacetylated tissues. Foetuses at term were processed for skeletal examination. Both VPA and TSA were able to induce hyperacetylation on embryos, specifically at the level of the caudal neural tube and of somites. At term, TSA showed teratogenic effects at the axial skeleton, quite similar to those observed after VPA exposure. In conclusion, both VPA and TSA are teratogenic in mice. A direct correlation between somite hyperacetylation and axial abnormalities could suggest the HDAC inhibition as the mechanism of the teratogenic effects.Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 11/2005; 74(5):392-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Folic acid is an essential vitamin for a wide spectrum of biochemical reactions; however, unlike bacteria and plants, mammals are devoid of folate biosynthesis and thus must obtain this cofactor from exogenous sources. Therefore, folate deficiency may impair the de novo biosynthesis of purines and thymidylate and thereby disrupt DNA and RNA metabolism, homocysteine remethylation, methionine biosynthesis, and subsequent formation of S-adenosylmethionine (the universal methyl donor) which in turn may lead to altered methylation reactions. This impaired folate-dependent intracellular metabolism can lead to several key pathologies including, for example, megaloblastic anemia, homocysteinemia, cardiovascular disease, embryonic defects, in particular neural tube defects (NTDs), congenital heart defects, and possibly cancer. The current review presents and evaluates the up-to-date knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular survival and/or adaptation to folate deficiency or insufficiency. These mechanisms of adaptation to folate deficiency generally associated with folate uptake, intracellular folate retention, folate-dependent metabolism, and active folate efflux specifically include: (a) Up- or downregulation of various folate-dependent enzymes like dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), (b) Cellular retention of folates via polyglutamylation by the enzyme folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase (FPGS), (c) Overexpression of folate influx systems including the reduced folate carrier (RFC), folate receptor (FR) as well as the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), a recently identified intestinal folate influx transporter optimally functioning at the acidic microclimate of the upper intestinal epithelium, (d) Downregulation of ATP-driven folate efflux transporters of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP; ABCC) family and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) that belong to the multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Moreover, the intricate interplay between various components of the adaptive response to folate deprivation is also discussed.Vitamins & Hormones 02/2008; 79:99-143. · 2.30 Impact Factor