Adherence to Antipsychotics and Cardiometabolic Medication: Association With Health Care Utilization and Costs

Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (Impact Factor: 2.41). 06/2012; 63(9):920-8. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


This study examined the association between adherence to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medication and annual use of health care services and expenditures.
MarketScan Medicaid files from 2004 to 2008 were used to evaluate annual cross-sections of patients with schizophrenia and diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Annual adherence to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medication was defined as a score of at least 80% on proportion of days covered. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between antipsychotic adherence and adherence to cardiometabolic medications. Count data models and generalized linear models estimated health care utilization and health care expenditures, respectively, for outpatient, emergency, inpatient, and overall health services.
A total of 87,015 unique patients with schizophrenia received at least one antipsychotic medication. The overall prevalence of any comorbid cardiometabolic condition was 42.9% in 2004 and increased to 52.5% in 2008. Adherence to cardiometabolic medications was significantly greater among patients who were adherent to antipsychotic medications (adjusted odds ratio=6.9). Adjusted annual expenditures for emergency and inpatient care were higher for patients who were nonadherent to either antipsychotics or cardiometabolic medications than for patients who were adherent to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medications. They were highest for patients who were nonadherent to both groups of medications. Outpatient, medication, and overall expenditures were lower for patients who were nonadherent to antipsychotic medications, regardless of cardiometabolic medication adherence.
Among Medicaid patients with schizophrenia, cardiometabolic conditions are common, and adherence to antipsychotics and adherence to cardiometabolic medications are strongly related. Interventions that can improve medication adherence to treatment of both schizophrenia and comorbid cardiometabolic conditions may reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations. (Psychiatric Services 63:920-928, 2012; doi: 10.1176/

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    • "We assessed patient’s age at index admission date and considered the commonly used age cut-off (i.e., ≥18 years) to define adults in studies conducted using Medicaid databases including the MarketScan Multi-State database [53–56]. The 17 patients with basis of eligibility as ‘Child (not child of unemployed adult, not foster-care child)’that was assessed at the index admission date can possibly be from Medicaid states that consider 21 years as the age cut-off to define adults. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder have a high risk of re-hospitalization. However, limited data exist evaluating critical post-discharge periods during which the risk of re-hospitalization is significant. Among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder, we assessed pharmacotherapy adherence and healthcare utilization and costs during sequential 60-day clinical periods before schizoaffective disorder-related hospitalization and post-hospital discharge. From the MarketScan(®) Medicaid database (2004-2008), we identified patients (≥18 years) with a schizoaffective disorder-related inpatient admission. Study measures including medication adherence and healthcare utilization and costs were assessed during sequential preadmission and post-discharge periods. We conducted univariate and multivariable regression analyses to compare schizoaffective disorder-related and all-cause healthcare utilization and costs (in 2010 US dollars) between each adjacent 60-day post-discharge periods. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. We identified 1,193 hospital-discharged patients with a mean age of 41 years. The mean medication adherence rate was 46 % during the 60-day period prior to index inpatient admission, which improved to 80 % during the 60-day post-discharge period. Following hospital discharge, schizoaffective disorder-related healthcare costs were significantly greater during the initial 60-day period compared with the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period (mean US$2,370 vs US$1,765; p < 0.001), with rehospitalization (36 %) and pharmacy (40 %) accounting for over three-fourths of the initial 60-day period costs. Compared with the initial 60-day post-discharge period, both all-cause and schizoaffective disorder-related costs declined during the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period and remained stable for the remaining post-discharge periods (days 121-365). We observed considerably lower (46 %) adherence during 60 days prior to the inpatient admission; in comparison, adherence for the overall 6-month period was 8 % (54 %) higher. Our study findings suggest that both short-term (e.g., 60 days) and long-term (e.g., 6-12 months) medication adherence likely are important characteristics to examine among patients with schizoaffective disorder and help provide a more holistic view of patients' adherence patterns. Furthermore, we observed a high rate of rehospitalization and greater healthcare costs during the initial 60-day period post-discharge among patients with schizoaffective disorder. Further research is required to better understand and manage transitional care after discharge (e.g., monitor adherence), which may help reduce the likelihood of rehospitalization and the associated downstream costs.
    Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 04/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1007/s40258-014-0095-8
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    ABSTRACT: Medication nonadherence has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals with chronic disease. Several mobile medication management applications are available to help users track, remember, and read about their medication therapy.
    03/2014; 2(1):e11. DOI:10.2196/mhealth.3048
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Despite the importance of medication adherence for the effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little research has examined adherence with diabetes medication treatment in schizophrenia. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1) evaluate rates of adherence and determinants of adherence with medication for T2DM in individuals with schizophrenia, and, where possible, 2) examine the relationship between medication adherence and glycemic control. Methods: Studies were included if they presented information on dosing regimens and adherence or compliance rates for T2DM and included samples where at least 50% of the participants were individuals with schizophrenia. Results: Six studies were included in this review that predominantly examined men over the age of 50 years. Studies confirmed that many individuals with schizophrenia were not adhering to their diabetes medication as adherence rates ranged from 51-85%. Two studies that compared medication adherence in individuals with and without schizophrenia found those with the mental illness had higher rates of adherence. One study reported that blood glucose control levels were not statistically different between those who did and did not adhere to their medication, indicating more research is necessary in this area. Factors that improved adherence included disease and medical service and medication related factors. Conclusions: Interventions to increase diabetes medication adherence in schizophrenia need to address disease and medical service and medication related factors. Further research needs to examine diabetes medication adherence in women, younger individuals, and those recently diagnosed with diabetes as these individuals have been underrepresented in the literature.
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