Adherence to antipsychotics and cardiometabolic medication: association with health care utilization and costs.

Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (Impact Factor: 2.81). 06/2012; 63(9):920-8. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined the association between adherence to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medication and annual use of health care services and expenditures.
MarketScan Medicaid files from 2004 to 2008 were used to evaluate annual cross-sections of patients with schizophrenia and diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Annual adherence to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medication was defined as a score of at least 80% on proportion of days covered. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between antipsychotic adherence and adherence to cardiometabolic medications. Count data models and generalized linear models estimated health care utilization and health care expenditures, respectively, for outpatient, emergency, inpatient, and overall health services.
A total of 87,015 unique patients with schizophrenia received at least one antipsychotic medication. The overall prevalence of any comorbid cardiometabolic condition was 42.9% in 2004 and increased to 52.5% in 2008. Adherence to cardiometabolic medications was significantly greater among patients who were adherent to antipsychotic medications (adjusted odds ratio=6.9). Adjusted annual expenditures for emergency and inpatient care were higher for patients who were nonadherent to either antipsychotics or cardiometabolic medications than for patients who were adherent to antipsychotic and cardiometabolic medications. They were highest for patients who were nonadherent to both groups of medications. Outpatient, medication, and overall expenditures were lower for patients who were nonadherent to antipsychotic medications, regardless of cardiometabolic medication adherence.
Among Medicaid patients with schizophrenia, cardiometabolic conditions are common, and adherence to antipsychotics and adherence to cardiometabolic medications are strongly related. Interventions that can improve medication adherence to treatment of both schizophrenia and comorbid cardiometabolic conditions may reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations. (Psychiatric Services 63:920-928, 2012; doi: 10.1176/

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder have a high risk of re-hospitalization. However, limited data exist evaluating critical post-discharge periods during which the risk of re-hospitalization is significant. Among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder, we assessed pharmacotherapy adherence and healthcare utilization and costs during sequential 60-day clinical periods before schizoaffective disorder-related hospitalization and post-hospital discharge. From the MarketScan(®) Medicaid database (2004-2008), we identified patients (≥18 years) with a schizoaffective disorder-related inpatient admission. Study measures including medication adherence and healthcare utilization and costs were assessed during sequential preadmission and post-discharge periods. We conducted univariate and multivariable regression analyses to compare schizoaffective disorder-related and all-cause healthcare utilization and costs (in 2010 US dollars) between each adjacent 60-day post-discharge periods. No adjustment was made for multiplicity. We identified 1,193 hospital-discharged patients with a mean age of 41 years. The mean medication adherence rate was 46 % during the 60-day period prior to index inpatient admission, which improved to 80 % during the 60-day post-discharge period. Following hospital discharge, schizoaffective disorder-related healthcare costs were significantly greater during the initial 60-day period compared with the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period (mean US$2,370 vs US$1,765; p < 0.001), with rehospitalization (36 %) and pharmacy (40 %) accounting for over three-fourths of the initial 60-day period costs. Compared with the initial 60-day post-discharge period, both all-cause and schizoaffective disorder-related costs declined during the 61- to 120-day post-discharge period and remained stable for the remaining post-discharge periods (days 121-365). We observed considerably lower (46 %) adherence during 60 days prior to the inpatient admission; in comparison, adherence for the overall 6-month period was 8 % (54 %) higher. Our study findings suggest that both short-term (e.g., 60 days) and long-term (e.g., 6-12 months) medication adherence likely are important characteristics to examine among patients with schizoaffective disorder and help provide a more holistic view of patients' adherence patterns. Furthermore, we observed a high rate of rehospitalization and greater healthcare costs during the initial 60-day period post-discharge among patients with schizoaffective disorder. Further research is required to better understand and manage transitional care after discharge (e.g., monitor adherence), which may help reduce the likelihood of rehospitalization and the associated downstream costs.
    Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: People of color with serious mental illnesses experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. Patient navigators, developed for cancer care, may help this group benefit from integrated care. This review examined patient navigators' key ingredients for cancer care for relevance to patients of color for application of peer services to psychiatric goals. Among cancer patients, navigators lead to greater treatment engagement and improved health outcomes for ethnic minority groups. Research also suggests peers can improve integrated care by providing effective psychiatric services to individuals with mental illness. Ongoing research examines peer navigators' impact on integrated care for patients of color.
    Social Work in Public Health 09/2014; 29(6):581-593. · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medication nonadherence has a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of individuals with chronic disease. Several mobile medication management applications are available to help users track, remember, and read about their medication therapy.
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 01/2014; 2(1):e11.