Genes associate with abnormal bone cell activity in bone metastasis.
ABSTRACT Bone is one of the most frequent sites of metastasis in patients with malignancies. Up to 90 % of patients with multiple myeloma, and 60 % to 75 % patients with prostate cancer and breast cancer develop bone metastasis at the later stages of their diseases. Bone metastases are responsible for tremendous morbidity in patients with cancer, including severe bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord and nerve compression syndromes, life-threatening hypercalcemia, and increased mortality. Multiple factors produced by tumor cells or produced by the bone marrow microenvironment in response to tumor cells play important roles in activation of osteoclastic bone resorption and modulation of osteoblastic activity in patients with bone metastasis. In this chapter, we will review the genes that play important roles in bone destruction, tumor growth, and osteoblast activity in bone metastasis and discuss the potential therapies targeting the products of these genes to block both bone destruction and tumor growth.