Inhibition of Phosphorylation of JNK Suppresses Aβ-Induced ER Stress and Upregulates Prosurvival Mitochondrial Proteins in Rat Hippocampus.
ABSTRACT A growing body of evidence indicates that c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) is activated in Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we examine the effect of the JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, on the level of functional proteins or transcription factors related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress induced by amyloid beta (Aβ). Our results clearly showed the ability of SP600125 to decrease the levels of caspase 12 and calpain 2, two important enzymes involved in ER stress. Aβ has been suggested to be able to decrease the phosphorylation level of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We observed that JNK inhibition in Aβ-injected rats can restore the activation of CREB through increasing its phosphorylation level. This effect may explain the increase observed in c-fos level, as a CREB downstream factor under JNK inhibition in Aβ-injected rats. Following Aβ injection, the levels of pro-survival mitochondrial proteins including nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) significantly decreased, which could be returned to control level with JNK inhibition. We suggest that the elevation in the level of PGC1-alpha and other mitochondrial proteins is the result of an increase in CREB activation as the upstream factor of PGC1-alpha. Also, we observed that pretreatment with SP600125 leads to a greater increase of nuclear related factor-2 (Nrf2) level compared with the Aβ-injected group. Nrf2 has been shown to bind to CREB-binding factor leading to their contribution in Nrf2 target genes expression. Besides, NRF-1 and TFAM are reported as Nrf2 targets. Based on our data, we can conclude that JNK carry out partial destructive effects of Aβ in rat brain.
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ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protective antioxidant enzyme that prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis, for instance, during progressive cardiomyopathy. Here we identify a fundamental aspect of the HO-1 protection mechanism by demonstrating that HO-1 activity in mouse heart stimulates the bigenomic mitochondrial biogenesis program via induction of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf)2 gene expression and nuclear translocation. Nrf2 upregulates the mRNA, protein, and activity for HO-1 as well as mRNA and protein for nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1. Mechanistically, in cardiomyocytes, endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) generated by HO-1 overexpression stimulates superoxide dismutase-2 upregulation and mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production, which activates Akt/PKB. Akt deactivates glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, which permits Nrf2 nuclear translocation and occupancy of 4 antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the NRF-1 promoter. The ensuing accumulation of nuclear NRF-1 protein leads to gene activation for mitochondrial biogenesis, which opposes apoptosis and necrosis caused by the cardio-toxic anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin. In cardiac cells, Akt silencing exacerbates doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, and in vivo CO rescues wild-type but not Akt1(-/-) mice from doxorubicin cardiomyopathy. These findings consign HO-1/CO signaling through Nrf2 and Akt to the myocardial transcriptional program for mitochondrial biogenesis, provide a rationale for targeted mitochondrial CO therapy, and connect cardiac mitochondrial volume expansion with the inducible network of xenobiotic and antioxidant cellular defenses.Circulation Research 11/2008; 103(11):1232-40. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The invariant characteristic features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain include the presence of extracellular neuritic plaques composed of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing hyper-phosphorylated tau protein and the loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Studies of the pathological changes that characterize AD and several other lines of evidence indicate that in vivo accumulation of Abeta(1-42) may initiate the process of neurodegeneration observed in AD brains. However, the cause of degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their association to Abeta peptides or phosphorylated tau protein have not been clearly established. In the present study, using rat primary septal cultures, we have shown that Abeta(1-42), in a time (1-48 h) and concentration (0.01-20 microM)-dependent manner, induce toxicity in cultured neurons. Subsequently, we have demonstrated that Abeta toxicity is mediated via activation of cysteine proteases, i.e., calpain and caspase, and proteolytic breakdown of their downstream substrates tau, microtubule-associated protein-2 and alpha II-spectrin. Additionally, Abeta-treatment was found to induce phosphorylation of tau protein along with decreased levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-Ser(9)glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Exposure to specific inhibitors of caspase or calpain can partially protect cultured neurons against Abeta-induced toxicity but their effects are not found to be additive. These results, taken together, suggest that Abeta peptide can induce toxicity in rat septal cultured neurons by activating multiple intracellular signaling molecules. Additionally, evidence that inhibitors of caspase and calpains can partially protect the cultured basal forebrain neurons raised the possibility that their inhibitors could be of therapeutic relevance in the treatment of AD pathology.Neuropharmacology 04/2008; 54(4):721-33. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are multiple lines of evidence showing that oxidative stress and aberrant mitogenic signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. However, the chronological relationship between these and other events associated with disease pathogenesis is not known. Given the important role that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play in both mitogenic signaling (ERK) and cellular stress signaling (JNK/SAPK and p38), we investigated the chronological and spatial relationship between activated ERK, JNK/SAPK and p38 during disease progression. While all three kinases are activated in the same susceptible neurons in mild and severe cases (Braak stages III-VI), in non-demented cases with limited pathology (Braak stages I and II), both ERK and JNK/SAPK are activated but p38 is not. However, in non-demented cases lacking any sign of pathology (Braak stage 0), either ERK alone or JNK/SAPK alone can be activated. Taken together, these findings indicate that MAPK pathways are differentially activated during the course of Alzheimer disease and, by inference, suggest that both oxidative stress and abnormalities in mitotic signaling can independently serve to initiate, but both are necessary to propagate, disease pathogenesis. Therefore, we propose that both 'hits', oxidative stress and mitotic alterations, are necessary for the progression of Alzheimer disease.Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 01/2002; 123(1):39-46. · 3.26 Impact Factor