Inhibition of Phosphorylation of JNK Suppresses Aβ-Induced ER Stress and Upregulates Prosurvival Mitochondrial Proteins in Rat Hippocampus.
ABSTRACT A growing body of evidence indicates that c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) is activated in Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we examine the effect of the JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, on the level of functional proteins or transcription factors related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress induced by amyloid beta (Aβ). Our results clearly showed the ability of SP600125 to decrease the levels of caspase 12 and calpain 2, two important enzymes involved in ER stress. Aβ has been suggested to be able to decrease the phosphorylation level of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We observed that JNK inhibition in Aβ-injected rats can restore the activation of CREB through increasing its phosphorylation level. This effect may explain the increase observed in c-fos level, as a CREB downstream factor under JNK inhibition in Aβ-injected rats. Following Aβ injection, the levels of pro-survival mitochondrial proteins including nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) significantly decreased, which could be returned to control level with JNK inhibition. We suggest that the elevation in the level of PGC1-alpha and other mitochondrial proteins is the result of an increase in CREB activation as the upstream factor of PGC1-alpha. Also, we observed that pretreatment with SP600125 leads to a greater increase of nuclear related factor-2 (Nrf2) level compared with the Aβ-injected group. Nrf2 has been shown to bind to CREB-binding factor leading to their contribution in Nrf2 target genes expression. Besides, NRF-1 and TFAM are reported as Nrf2 targets. Based on our data, we can conclude that JNK carry out partial destructive effects of Aβ in rat brain.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and neuronal loss, particularly in the hippocampus. Direct central administration of this peptide was suggested as a route to create an animal model of AD. Although there are some studies indicating that a single dose of Aβ induces AD-like learning and memory impairment, this model is not usually reproducible especially in rat. Then one of the aims of this study was to explore a more reliable method to trigger AD-like behavioral impairments in rat through a series of pilot studies. In other step, according to some controversies about roles of MAPKs (P38, JNK and ERK) in AD, these kinases were assayed in beta amyloid-treated rats with or without memory impairment. A series of pilot studies was done to assess if a single Aβ injection (5, 10, 15µg/each side) induces reproducible memory impairment. Because of the failure of that set of studies, another set of experiment with repeated Aβ administration during four days was carried out. The results showed that in contrast to single treatment of beta amyloid, its repeated administration (5µg/2.5µl each side/day) during 4 days led to memory deterioration. Hippocampal western blot analysis revealed that behavioral impairment is in parallel with greater apoptosis and MAPKs activation. This study introduces a new method for inducing AD models by repeated intra-CA1 injection of Aβ25-35. Additionally it elucidates how caspase-3 and MAPKs activity differ between beta amyloid-treated rats with or without learning and memory impairment.European journal of pharmacology 01/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the abnormal deposition of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. However, the nature and precise mechanism of the toxicity of Aβ oligomers are not clearly understood. Aβ oligomers have been previously shown to cause a major loss of EphB2, a member of the EphB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. To determine the effect of EphB2 on Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we examined the EphB2 gene in cultured hippocampal neurons. Using a cellular model of AD, Aβ1-42 oligomers were confirmed to induce neurotoxicity in a time-dependent manner and result in a major decrease of EphB2. EphB2 overexpression could prevent the neurotoxicity of hippocampal neurons from exposure to Aβ1-42 oligomers for 1 h. Further analysis revealed that EphB2 overexpression increased synaptic NR1 and NR2B expression in Aβ1-42 oligomer-treated neurons. Moreover, EphB2 overexpression prevented Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced downregulation of dephosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated CREB. Together, these results suggest that EphB2 is a factor which protects hippocampal neurons against the toxicity of Aβ1-42 oligomers, and we infer that the protection of EphB2 is achieved by increasing the synaptic NMDA receptor level and downstream p38 MAPK and CREB signaling in hippocampal neurons. This study provides new molecular insights into the neuroprotective effect of EphB2 and highlights its potential therapeutic role in the management of AD.Neurochemistry International 07/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases as leading causes of the mortality world-wide are related to diabetes. The present study was to explore the protective effect of curcumin analogue C66 on diabetes-induced pathogenic changes of aortas. Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice and age-matched non-diabetic mice were randomly treated with either vehicle (Control and Diabetes), C66 (C66 and Diabetes/C66) or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (sp600125, JNKi and Diabetes/JNKi). All three treatments were given by gavage at 5 mg/kg every other day for 3 months. Aortic inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, cell apoptosis and proliferation, Nrf2 expression and transcription were assessed by immunohistochemical staining for the protein level and real-time PCR method for mRNA level. Diabetes increased aortic wall thickness and structural derangement as well as JNK phosphorylation, all of which were attenuated by C66 treatment as JNKi did. Inhibition of JNK phosphorylation by C66 and JNKi also significantly prevented diabetes-induced increases in inflammation, oxidative and nitrative stress, apoptosis, cell proliferation and fibrosis. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK phosphorylation by C66 and JNKi significantly increased aortic Nrf2 expression and transcription function (e.g. increased expression of Nrf2-downstream genes) in normal and diabetic conditions. These results suggest that diabetes-induced pathological changes in the aorta can be protected by C66 via inhibition of JNK function, accompanied by the up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and function.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 04/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor