The effects of short-term nicotine administration on behavioral and oxidative stress deficiencies induced in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced lesion of substantia nigra (SN), which is a very well known animal model of Parkinson's disease, resulted in memory deficits and increased brain oxidative stress. Also, recent reports had suggested that nicotine from smoke may contribute, at least in some parts, to the apparent neuroprotective effect of tobacco use in Parkinson's disease.
In this way, in the present study we were interested to examine the effects of low-dose nicotine administration (5 days, 0.3 mg/kg/day) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, on behavioral parameters from Y-maze or shuttle-box task and also on the oxidative stress markers from the temporal lobe, which is one of the most vulnerable cortical area to oxidative stress effects.
The administration of nicotine resulted in significant improvements of short-term memory, as seen in the Y-maze task, as well an increase of conditioned avoidance responses and decreased number of escape failures in the shuttle-box task. Additionally, an increase in the specific activity of glutathione peroxidase and a decrease of the lipid peroxidation processes is reported. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between the behavioral results from the Y-maze and shuttle-box tasks and the levels of oxidative stress markers.
Taken together our data suggest that short-term administration of low-dose nicotine facilitates memory processes and improves the oxidative stress status of the brain, after a 6-OHDA induced lesion of the SN.
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ABSTRACT: Nicotine is the main ingredient of tobacco and it has been described as aversive, reinforce and procognitive. However there is not enough research about the overlapping of the dose-dependent effects as aversive stimulus and precognitive effects. For those reasons we evaluated the nicotine effects on the Conditioned Taste Aversion paradigm (CTA) to measure the dose-response curve of the aversive effects of nicotine and to compare such effects with the procognitive effects reported. 20 male Wistar rats in standard laboratory conditions were randomly assigned to 5 groups (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 y 1.6 mg/kg i.p.). The obtained results showed a dose-dependent decrease with a maximum effect at 1.6 mg/kg dose; however we founded effects from the 0.8 mg/kg dose, such dose overlapped with procognitive doses reported. These results allow us to propose that some effects could be due the periferical aversive effects instead of the central procognitive effects.04/2013; 3(1):930-940. DOI:10.1016/S2007-4719(13)70943-8
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ABSTRACT: Emerging evidences suggest that nicotine exerts a neuroprotective effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the precise mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here, HT22 cells were exposed to amyloid beta protein fragment (Aβ)1-42 to mimic the pathological process of neuron in AD. We hypothesized that cannabinoid receptor CB1 is involved in the nicotine-induced neuroprotection against Aβ1-42 injury in HT22 cells. CB1 expression in HT22 cells was investigated by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. The injury of HT22 cells was evaluated by cellular morphology, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The apoptosis of HT22 cells was assessed by flow cytometry and expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax. The results demonstrated that nicotine markedly upregulated CB1 expression, increased cell viability, ameliorated cellular morphology, decreased LDH release, and reduced the apoptotic rate of HT22 cells exposed to Aβ1-42 for 24 h, while the blockade of CB1 or the inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) partially reversed the neuroprotection. Furthermore, the blockade of CB1 reversed nicotine-induced PKC activation in HT22 cells exposed to Aβ1-42. These results suggest that CB1 is involved in the nicotine-induced neuroprotection against Aβ1-42 neurotoxicity, and the neuroprotection may be dependent on the activation of PKC.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 09/2014; 55(3). DOI:10.1007/s12031-014-0422-4 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors are highly expressed in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS-DB), especially in parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons linked to hippocampal theta rhythm, which is involved in cognition. Cognitive impairments commonly occur in Parkinson's disease. Here we performed behavioral, electrophysiological, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies in rats with complete unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to assess the importance of dopamine (DA) depletion and MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors for working memory. The MFB lesions resulted in working memory impairment and decreases in firing rate and density of MS-DB PV-positive neurons, peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, and DA levels in septohippocampal system and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to control rats. Intra-MS-DB injection of high affinity 5-HT2A receptor agonist TCB-2 enhanced working memory, increased firing rate of PV-positive neurons and peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm, elevated DA levels in the hippocampus and mPFC, and decreased 5-HT level in the hippocampus in control and lesioned rats. Compared to control rats, the duration of the excitatory effect produced by TCB-2 on the firing rate of PV-positive neurons was markedly shortened in lesioned rats, indicating dysfunction of 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that unilateral lesions of the MFB in rats induced working memory deficit, and activation of MS-DB 5-HT2A receptors enhanced working memory, which may be due to changes in the activity of septohippocampal network and monoamine levels in the hippocampus and mPFC. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neuropharmacology 12/2014; 91. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.11.025 · 4.82 Impact Factor