Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes.
ABSTRACT We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd(2)O(3)) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd(2)O(3) nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is one of the major toxic effects reported in the literature following nanoparticle (NP) exposure. Knowing the importance of neutrophils to orchestrate inflammation, it is surprising that the direct role of NPs on neutrophil biology is poorly documented. Here, we investigated if ZnO NPs can alter neutrophil biology. We found that ZnO NPs increased the cell size, induced cell shape changes, activated phosphorylation events, enhanced cell spreading onto glass, but did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of neutrophils with ZnO NPs markedly and significantly inhibited apoptosis and increased de novo protein synthesis, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis of metabolically [(35)S]-labeled cells. Utilisation of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, reversed such antiapoptotic effect. We conclude that ZnO NPs are activators of several human neutrophil functions and that they inhibit apoptosis by a de novo protein synthesis-dependent and ROS-independent mechanism. This is the first example that a NP acts on the neo-synthesis of polypeptides.Toxicology in Vitro 04/2014; · 3.21 Impact Factor
- Journal of Nanoparticle Research 10/2014; 16(10):2663. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is frequently associated with nanoparticle (NP) exposures. Given that excessive polymorphonuclear neutrophil cell degranulation is a common feature of inflammatory disorders, and since these cells are key players in inflammation, we decided to test the hypothesis that NPs could act as modulators of degranulation in human neutrophils. TiO2, CeO2 and ZnO NPs slightly down-regulated cell surface expression of the granule marker CD35, but increased CD66b and CD63 expression, as assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, expression of myeloperoxidase, MMP-9 (CD66b) and albumin stored in azurophil, specific/gelatinase and secretrory granules, respectively, was significantly increased in the supernatants of NPs-induced neutrophils when compared to untreated cells. Moreover, NPs were more potent than the classical bacterial tripeptide N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) agonist. Finally, TiO2 and CeO2 markedly increased the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 released into the supernatant, as assessed by gelatin zymography, while ZnO exerted only a modest effect. We conclude that NPs can differentially affect all steps involved during neutrophil degranulation, namely, cell surface expression of granule markers, liberation of proteins in the supernatants and enzymatic activity. These results are expected to be helpful to understand the toxicity of TiO2, CeO2 and ZnO.Toxicology Letters 05/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor