Improvement in long-term outcomes with successive Total Therapy trials for multiple myeloma: are patients now being cured?
ABSTRACT The concept of applying all active therapeutic agents in Total Therapy (TT) clinical trials for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma was pursued with the intent of developing curative treatment. The results of TT1 (n=231), TT2 (n=668) without or with thalidomide and TT3 with added bortezomib (n=303) have been reported. An update with median follow-up times of 17.1, 8.7 and 5.5 years, respectively, is provided. Conditional overall survival (OS) analysis from a 4-year landmark was applied to account for earlier protocol failure owing to disease aggressiveness and toxicities. Cumulative relative survival was computed in the context of age- and gender-matched US population, and interval-specific relative survival ratios were estimated to determine times to normal survival expectation. Based on Cox model-adjusted statistics, OS, progression-free survival and complete-response duration all improved with the transitions from TT1 to TT2 to TT3; improvement was also evident from time-to-progression estimates, 4-year conditional survival data and cumulative relative survival. Interval-specific relative survival normalized progressively sooner, reaching near-normal levels with TT3 in patients who attained complete response. Thus, a strategy using all myeloma-effective agents up-front seems effective at preventing, in progressively larger patient cohorts over time, the outgrowth of resistant tumor cells that account for ongoing relapses.Leukemia advance online publication, 13 July 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.160.
- SourceAvailable from: Pankaj Gadhia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma is characterized by a complex pattern of extensive genomic aberrations involving many chromosomes and it constitutes about 1% of all malignancies. We have performed conventional cytogenetic (CC) and interphase FISH on 58 cases of MM. Results showed that from 58 cases, only 08 cases had abnormal karyotype by conventional cytogenetic. On the other hand, interphase FISH study with 58 MM patients revealed 08 patients with normal results while 50 patients showed complex genetic aberrations. It included deletions of 13q14 (48.3%), 17p13 (13.8%), 11q13 (27.6%) along with translocation of IgH involving t(4;14)(51.7%) and t(14;16)(1,7%). We conclude that interphase FISH study should be performed in conjunction with conventional cytogenetic for prognostic significance in MM.
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ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) are in early clinical development for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. Despite all encouraging pre-clinical data, clinical activity of HDACi and DNMTi is mostly lacking. To optimize the trials, characterization of the in vivo response towards HDACi and DNMTi will be crucial. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional response after in vivo treatment with the HDACi quisinostat or DNMTi decitabine using the murine 5T33MM model. We identified 504 and 154 genes deregulated by quisinostat and decitabine, respectively. Of interest, MM patients' gene expression levels of 62 quisinostat- and 25 decitabine-deregulated genes were predictive for overall survival of patients. This prognostic information was implemented in a DNA methylation and histone acetylation score. A high score was related to a high proliferative and immature phenotype of MM cells. Furthermore, highly scored MM patients had an adverse overall survival. Interestingly, bio-informatic prediction tools revealed an association of quisinostat-deregulated genes with lymphocyte activation, proliferation, immune-effector mechanisms and T-helper-1 development. Overall, treatment of 5T33MM mice with epigenetic modulating agents led to the translation of gene signatures to predict overall survival of MM patients. HDACi mainly deregulated tumoral immunomodulatory pathways, supporting the rationale to combine HDACi with immunomodulatory therapies.Oncotarget 12/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie & Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Results Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Conclusions Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain relief and recalcification in this retrospective evaluation of multiple myeloma patients. In addition, in the elderly the therapeutic measures appear to develop a better analgesic effect.Radiation Oncology 03/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13014-015-0374-z · 2.36 Impact Factor