Article

A nephron-based model of the kidneys for macro-to-micro α-particle dosimetry.

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD, USA.
Physics in Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.92). 06/2012; 57(13):4403-24. DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/57/13/4403
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Targeted α-particle therapy is a promising treatment modality for cancer. Due to the short path-length of α-particles, the potential efficacy and toxicity of these agents is best evaluated by microscale dosimetry calculations instead of whole-organ, absorbed fraction-based dosimetry. Yet time-integrated activity (TIA), the necessary input for dosimetry, can still only be quantified reliably at the organ or macroscopic level. We describe a nephron- and cellular-based kidney dosimetry model for α-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy, more suited to the short range and high linear energy transfer of α-particle emitters, which takes as input kidney or cortex TIA and through a macro to micro model-based methodology assigns TIA to micro-level kidney substructures. We apply a geometrical model to provide nephron-level S-values for a range of isotopes allowing for pre-clinical and clinical applications according to the medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) schema. We assume that the relationship between whole-organ TIA and TIA apportioned to microscale substructures as measured in an appropriate pre-clinical mammalian model also applies to the human. In both, the pre-clinical and the human model, microscale substructures are described as a collection of simple geometrical shapes akin to those used in the Cristy-Eckerman phantoms for normal organs. Anatomical parameters are taken from the literature for a human model, while murine parameters are measured ex vivo. The murine histological slides also provide the data for volume of occupancy of the different compartments of the nephron in the kidney: glomerulus versus proximal tubule versus distal tubule. Monte Carlo simulations are run with activity placed in the different nephron compartments for several α-particle emitters currently under investigation in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The S-values were calculated for the α-emitters and their descendants between the different nephron compartments for both the human and murine models. The renal cortex and medulla S-values were also calculated and the results compared to traditional absorbed fraction calculations. The nephron model enables a more optimal implementation of treatment and is a critical step in understanding toxicity for human translation of targeted α-particle therapy. The S-values established here will enable a MIRD-type application of α-particle dosimetry for α-emitters, i.e. measuring the TIA in the kidney (or renal cortex) will provide meaningful and accurate nephron-level dosimetry.

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