Treatment of Conjunctival and Corneal Epithelial Neoplasia with Retinoic Acid and Topical Interferon Alfa-2b: Long-term Follow-up
ABSTRACT To evaluate the long-term recurrence rate of conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) treated with retinoic acid and topical interferon alfa-2b.
Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series.
A total of 89 eyes of 89 patients from 1 institution who were treated between September 2003 and February 2010 for CIN lesions used topical interferon alfa 1 million IU/ml drops 4 times daily and retinoic acid 0.01% once every second day.
Diagnosis was made by biopsy and impression cytology. Patients' notes and clinical photographs were reviewed, and data were analyzed. All eyes were monitored for the possibility of recurrence with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up from the time of documented clinical resolution.
All eyes were monitored for the possibility of recurrence with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up from the time of documented clinical resolution.
Complete clinical resolution of the CIN lesions was achieved in 87 of the 89 eyes treated (97.75%). Two of the 89 eyes treated (2.25%) had only a partial response to treatment; of these 2 patients, 1 was taking cyclosporine for keratitis sicca. For the 87 eyes with complete response, resolution occurred after a mean of 1.69 months (range, 19 days to 6.5 months). Mean follow-up after clinical resolution (tumor-free period) was 51.5 months (range, 11-84 months). Four of the 87 patients with complete response developed a mild allergic papillary conjunctivitis that settled on halving the interferon dose to 0.5 million IU drops and reducing the frequency to 3 times daily. Side effects were limited to 1 case of epithelial microcysts and 1 case of marginal keratitis.
In this group of patients observed with CIN lesions, combination treatment of topical retinoic acid and interferon alfa-2b was effective in treating lesions with minimal self-limited side effects with faster and greater resolution and a longer tumor-free period compared with studies using interferon alfa-2b alone. We hypothesize that topical all-trans retinoic acid and interferon alfa-2b may act synergistically. We believe that combination treatment of interferon alfa-2b and retinoic acid may offer a superior alternative to interferon alfa-2b alone in treating CIN.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical case The case of a 60 year-old male with a conjunctival lesion diagnosed as conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), who was treated with mitomycin-C for 3 weeks with minimal improvement. The therapy was change to interferon 2B. Six month later, and after a complete remission of the lesion, the treatment was suspended, with no signs of relapse. Discussion The treatment of these lesions is currently made with chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents, such as mitomycin-C, 5-fluorouracil, and interferon alfa 2B. The latter, even although is the least used, gives excellent results with fewer secondary effects than mitomycin-C, resulting in an optimal therapy for the non-invasive treatment of CIN lesions.Archivos de la Sociedad Espanola de Oftalmologia 01/2013; 89(11). DOI:10.1016/j.oftal.2013.11.009
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is an umbrella term for a spectrum of epithelial dysplasias of the cornea, conjunctiva, and limbus. Treatment for OSSN has historically been surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have been increasingly adopted. Advantages of medical treatments include the ability to treat the entire ocular surface and prevention of surgical complications. RECENT FINDINGS: The primary medical treatments for OSSN include mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, and interferon α2b. Mitomycin C has been shown in studies to be highly effective but has short-term and long-term side-effects that may be intolerable. 5-Fluorouracil and interferon α2b have been found to be similar in efficacy to mitomycin, with interferon being extremely well tolerated in the majority of patients. Most recently, other chemotherapeutic agents have been tried for OSSN including antivascular endothelial growth factor agents and vitamin A. The data regarding these latter treatment strategies are still limited. SUMMARY: An understanding of the recent literature, with respect to the efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages of the various therapies for OSSN will allow us to tailor treatment to each patient.Current opinion in ophthalmology 05/2013; 24(4). DOI:10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283622a13 · 2.64 Impact Factor
Chapter: PterygiumOcular Surface Disease: Cornea, Conjunctiva and Tear Film, 2 edited by Edward Holland, Mark Mannis, Barry Lee, 06/2013: chapter 18: pages 125-144; Elsevier., ISBN: 978-1-4557-2876-3