Under-five Protein Energy Malnutrition Admitted at the University of In Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu: a 10 year retrospective review

Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.64). 06/2012; 11(1):43. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-43
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, co-morbidities and case fatality rates of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) admissions at the paediatric ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, South-east Nigeria over a 10 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective study using case Notes, admission and mortality registers retrieved from the Hospital's Medical Records Department. Subjects: All children aged 0 to 59 months admitted into the hospital on account of PEM between 1996 and 2005. RESULTS: A total of 212 children with PEM were admitted during the period under review comprising of 127 (59.9%) males and 85(40.1%) females. The most common age groups with PEM were 6 to 12 months (55.7%) and 13 to 24 months (36.8%). Marasmus (34.9%) was the most common form of PEM noted in this review. Diarrhea and malaria were the most common associated co-morbidities. Majority (64.9%) of the patients were from the lower socio-economic class. The overall case fatality rate was 40.1% which was slightly higher among males (50.9%). Mortality in those with marasmic-kwashiokor and in the unclassified group was 53.3% and 54.5% respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the admissions and case fatality were noted in those aged 6 to 24 months which coincides with the weaning period. Marasmic-kwashiokor is associated with higher case fatality rate than other forms of PEM. We suggest strengthening of the infant feeding practices by promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, followed by appropriate weaning with continued breast feeding. Under-five children should be screened for PEM at the community level for early diagnosis and prompt management as a way of reducing the high mortality associated with admitted severe cases.


Available from: Agozie Ubesie, May 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Severe acute malnutrition has continued to be growing problem in Sub Saharan Africa. We investigated the factors associated with morbidity and mortality of under-five children admitted and managed in hospital for severe acute malnutrition. Methods It was a retrospective quantitative review of hospital based records using patient files, ward death and discharge registers. It was conducted focussing on demographic, clinical and mortality data which was extracted on all children aged 0–60 months admitted to the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia from 2009 to 2013. Cox proportional Hazards regression was used to identify predictors of mortality and Kaplan Meier curves where used to predict the length of stay on the ward. Results Overall (n = 9540) under-five children with severe acute malnutrition were admitted during the period under review, comprising 5148 (54%) males and 4386 (46%) females. Kwashiorkor was the most common type of severe acute malnutrition (62%) while diarrhoea and pneumonia were the most common co-morbidities. Overall mortality was at 46% with children with marasmus having the lowest survival rates on Kaplan Meier graphs. HIV infected children were 80% more likely to die compared to HIV uninfected children (HR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.6-1.2). However, over time (2009–2013), admissions and mortality rates declined significantly (mortality 51% vs. 35%, P < 0.0001). Conclusions We find evidence of declining mortality among the core morbid nutritional conditions, namely kwashiorkor, marasmus and marasmic-kwashiorkor among under-five children admitted at this hospital. The reasons for this are unclear or could be beyond the scope of this study. This decline in numbers could be either be associated with declining admissions or due to the interventions that have been implemented at community level to combat malnutrition such as provision of “Ready to Use therapeutic food” and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV at health centre level. Strategies that enhance and expand growth monitoring interventions at community level to detect malnutrition early to reduce incidence of severe cases and mortality need to be strengthened.
    Archives of Public Health 05/2015; 73(1). DOI:10.1186/s13690-015-0072-1
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to investigate epidemiological aspects of Malnutrition in Children under five years Admitted to GaafarIbn Oaf Paediatric Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The children less than five years (282) who admitted to the hospitals during one month were subjected to weight and height measurements, and their mothers were interviewed to obtain relevant data. The proportion of malnutrition among all registered diseases was 20.2%. Malnourished children were classified into washiorkor 43.8%, Marasmus 40.4%, Marasmickwash 12.3% and underweight 3.5%. Several factors were associated with malnutrition i.e. sex of child (odds ratio=2.4-%95 confidence interval=1.3-4.5), child age (p-value was close to zero), family size (odds ratio=2.8-%95 confidence interval=1.5 – 5.1), mother's education (odds=7.5-%95 confidence interval=3.9 – 14.7) and awareness of mothers about malnutrition (odds ratio=5.3 %95 confidence interval=2.9 – 9.8). The frequency of malnutrition in children less than five, as well as in many developing regions, was high compared to other diseases.
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    ABSTRACT: Case control studies that assess the burden and factors associated with undernutrition and anaemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Nigeria is very sparse. This will help to formulate nutritional programs among these children. Seventy HAART naive HIV infected children aged 18 months and above were as well as seventy age and sex matched HIV negative children were recruited from August 2007 to January 2009 at Paediatric Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Their bio data, WHO clinical stage, anthropometric measurements, haematocrit, serum albumin and CD4 counts were taken with other parameters according to a study proforma. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among the HIV infected subjects were 48. 6%,58. 6% and 31. 4% respectively which as significantly higher than 28. 1%, 7. 1% and 28. 1% among the HIV negative controls. 20. 1% of the HIV infected children were marasmic compared to 2. 3% of the controls. Triple anthropometric failure was found in 7. 1% of the subjects as compared to none among the controls. Anaemia is significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (70. 0% vs 31. 4%; p<0. 001). The prevalence of anaemia was higher in the HIV infected subjects with undernutrition. Low socioeconomic status, hypoalbuminemia and severe immunosuppression are significantly associated with higher undernutrition prevalence. Several years after availability of HAART, undernutrition and anaemia remain widely prevalent among newly presenting HAART naïve HIV infected Nigerian children. Nutritional supplementation and evaluation for anaemia still need close attention in the management of these children.
    05/2014; 18:77. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.77.3746