Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have immune-modulating effects. We were interested in determining their association with allergic sensitization.
We sought to determine the association between EDCs and allergic sensitization and whether this relationship depends on the antimicrobial properties of the EDCs, sex, or both.
Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in which urinary bisphenol A; triclosan; benzophenone-3; propyl, methyl, butyl, and ethyl parabens; and specific IgE levels were available for 860 children. Aeroallergen and food sensitizations were defined as having at least 1 positive (≥ 0.35 kU/L) specific IgE level to an aeroallergen or a food. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of EDCs and sensitization. Analyses were adjusted for urinary creatinine level, age, sex, ethnicity, and poverty index ratio.
The odds of aeroallergen sensitization significantly increased with the level of the antimicrobial EDCs triclosan and propyl and butyl parabens (P ≤ .04). The odds of food sensitization significantly increased with the level of urinary triclosan among male subjects (odds ratio for third vs first tertiles, 3.9; P= .02 for trend). There was a significant interaction between sex and triclosan level, with male subjects being more likely to be food sensitized with exposure (P= .03). Similar associations were not identified for the nonantimicrobial EDCs bisphenol A and benzophenone-3 (P > .2).
As a group, EDCs are not associated with allergen sensitization. However, levels of the antimicrobial EDCs triclosan and parabens were significantly associated with allergic sensitization. The potential role of antimicrobial EDCs in allergic disease warrants further study because they are commonly used in Western society.
"). Estrogenic activities of MeP, EtP, PrP, and butyl paraben (BuP) have been reported in numerous bioassays (Darbre et al., 2003; Golden et al., 2005; Miller et al., 2001; Oishi, 2002; Routledge et al., 1998). Epidemiological studies have shown an association between human exposure to parabens and adverse health effects (Meeker et al., 2011; Savage et al., 2012). In 2007, the ADI set for PrP was withdrawn by JECFA (JECFA, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomonitoring of human exposure to bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs; resin coating for food cans), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens; preservatives), benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters; sunscreen agents), triclosan (TCS; antimicrobials), and triclocarban (TCC; antimicrobials) has been investigated in western European countries and North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the exposure of Greek populations to these environmental chemicals. In this study, 100 urine samples collected from Athens, Greece, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of total concentrations of five derivatives of BADGEs, six parabens and their metabolite (ethyl-protocatechuate), five derivatives of BP-UV filters, TCS, and TCC. Urinary concentrations of BADGEs, parabens, ethyl-protocatechuate, BP-UV filters, TCS and TCC (on a volume basis) ranged 0.3-20.9 (geometric mean: 0.9), 1.6-1010 (24.2), <2-71.0 (2.1), 0.5-1120 (4.4), <0.5-2580 (8.0) and <0.5-1.9 (0.6) ng/mL, respectively. All 19 target chemicals were found in urine, and the highest detection rates were observed for methyl paraben (100%), bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (90%), ethyl paraben (87%), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (78%), propyl paraben (72%), and TCS (71%). Estimated daily intakes (EDIurine), calculated on the basis of the measured urinary concentrations, ranged from 0.023μg/kg bw/day for Σ5BADGEs to 31.4μg/kg bw/day for Σ6Parabens.
Science of The Total Environment 02/2014; 470-471:1243-1249. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.089 · 4.10 Impact Factor
"A study of 121,247 European adults reported that 1,752 (1.33%) had positive skin patch tests to a 16% paraben mix . A study of 859 US youngsters aged 6 to 18 years reported that higher urinary levels of BP and PP were associated with significantly higher rates of aeroallergen sensitization . Parabens are also suspected to play a role in the modern obesity epidemic. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With effective antibacterial and antifungal properties, commercially used parabens are synthetic compounds widely utilized as preservatives in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and as an additive in some foodstuffs. While long regarded as relatively safe and nontoxic, recent research has demonstrated xenoestrogenic properties of anthropogenic parabens with early evidence that paraben exposure may be linked to breast cancer, thyroid dysfunction, allergy, and obesity. In an attempt to determine the prevalence of paraben exposure in a Canadian urban community, a sample of convenience was done by measuring urinary levels of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and isobutyl parabens (MP, EP, PP, BP, and IP) in 39 consecutive patients in an Alberta primary care clinic. In 28 female patients including 9 pregnant women, the median urinary levels (in μ g/L) were 25.45 for MP, 10.17 for EP, 2.80 for PP, 0.30 for BP, and 0.24 for IP. In 11 male patients, the median urinary levels (in μ g/L) were 25.95 for MP, 10.37 for EP, 3.09 for PP, 0.35 for BP, and 0.22 for IP. Especially high urinary paraben levels were reported in a few patients, with the highest urinary concentrations (in μ g/L) reported as 966.46 for MP, 220.6 as EP, and 612.73 for PP. It is evident that exposure to assorted parabens is a routine event for many if not most individuals, including pregnant women, in urban Alberta, Canada.
"The occurrence of parabens in breast tissues was attributed to exposure from the use of underarm cosmetics (Darbre et al. 2004; Harvey and Everett 2004; Pugazhendhi et al. 2005). There are still limited data on human exposure to parabens (Ye et al. 2006; Meeker et al. 2010; Calafat et al. 2010; Savage et al. 2012). Blood and urine are suitable matrices for the assessment of human exposure to parabens . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100 %) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42 % for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2013; 65(3). DOI:10.1007/s00244-013-9924-2 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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