[Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in improving episodic memory of patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial].
ABSTRACT Mild cognitive impairment is a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. It is important in terms of recognizing memory loss in older people as well as identifying a group of individuals at high risk of developing dementia and who may benefit from preventive strategies. Ginkgo biloba extract has been shown to possess polyvalent properties, such as anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation. Ginkgo biloba extract appears to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases.
To observe the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet in improving episodic memory of mild cognitive impairment.
This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. The authors enrolled generally healthy, ambulatory or ambulatory-aided amnestic subjects with MCI, 60 to 85 years old, who expressed a memory complaint from Huadong Hospital, seven Community Health Centers in Shanghai, and Shanghai First Welfare Institution. A total of 120 MCI patients were randomly assigned to the Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet group (treatment group, 60 cases) and control group (60 cases). The patients in the treatment group took Ginkgo biloba leaf tablets 3 times a day, 19.2 mg each dose. The control group did not receive any intelligence-promoting or vasodilator reflex treatment except some health care.
The patients were tested with nonsense picture recognition of the clinical memory scale and the logical memory test based on the Wechsler memory scale before and after treatment.
After 6 months of treatment, the scores of the logical memory test and nonsense picture recognition were increased significantly in the treatment group (P<0.01, P<0.05), while the scores of the two tests from the control group had no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). After treatment, the positive rate of nonsense picture recognition was 55.17% in the treatment group, which was significantly higher than that of the control group at 32.73% (P<0.05). The efficacy rate of logical memory was 58.62% in the treatment group, also higher than 38.18% in the control group (P<0.05).
Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet showed good efficacy in promoting episodic memory function in MCI patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aluminum is the most widely used non-ferrous metal. However, recently it is reported to be a neurotoxic agent that could induce biochemical defects in brain by affecting levels of neurotransmitters and generating reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. This study aimed at evaluating neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract(1) (GBE) (200mg/kg for 28 days) in antagonizing aluminum-induced neurotoxicity through investigating certain parameters such as serum aluminum level, brain aluminum content, brain regional distribution of aluminum, brain oxidative stress biomarkers' content, and brain acetylcholinesterase(2) (AChE) activity. Passive avoidance paradigm was used to assess memory retrieval of rats. Rats' activities were studied using open field test. Results showed that administration of aluminum (10mg/kg for 28 days) impaired rats' memory retrieval associated with marked elevation of aluminum brain content, serum aluminum level and AChE activity. In addition, aluminum treatment induced significant elevation in its brain content in all tested regions. GBE treatment attenuated neurotoxic effects of aluminum as evidenced by improving rats' performance in passive avoidance and lowering brain AChE activity. Moreover, marked elevation in brain content of oxidized glutathione(3) (GSSG) and malonedialdehyde(4) (MDA) as well as depletion of reduced glutathione(5) (GSH) demonstrated following aluminum administration were reversed reaching normal levels after GBE treatment. Open field test, demonstrated no changes in latency period, number of ambulation, rearing, and grooming following aluminum or other treatments. Therefore, GBE may be a promising therapy ameliorating neurotoxicity of aluminum as an environmental toxic agent.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 08/2013; 31(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.07.006
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: More people are presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), frequently a precursor to dementia, but we do not know how to reduce deterioration. To systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of any intervention for MCI on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, functional, global outcomes, life quality or incident dementia. We reviewed 41 studies fitting predetermined criteria, assessed validity using a checklist, calculated standardised outcomes and prioritised primary outcome findings in placebo-controlled studies. The strongest evidence was that cholinesterase inhibitors did not reduce incident dementia. Cognition improved in single trials of: a heterogeneous psychological group intervention over 6 months; piribedil, a dopamine agonist over 3 months; and donepezil over 48 weeks. Nicotine improved attention over 6 months. There was equivocal evidence that Huannao Yicong improved cognition and social functioning. There was no replicated evidence that any intervention was effective. Cholinesterase inhibitors and rofecoxib are ineffective in preventing dementia. Further good-quality RCTs are needed and preliminary evidence suggests these should include trials of psychological group interventions and piribedil.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2013; 203(4):255-264. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.127811