Blue-yellow colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in occasional and dependent stimulant users.
ABSTRACT Specific blue-yellow colour vision impairment has been reported in dependent cocaine users and it was postulated that drug-induced changes in retinal dopamine neurotransmission are responsible. However, it is unclear whether these changes are confined to chronic cocaine users, whether they are specific for dopaminergic stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine and whether they are related to cognitive functions such as working memory, encoding and consolidation. In 47 occasional and 29 dependent cocaine users, 23 MDMA (commonly known as 'ecstasy') users and 47 stimulant-naive controls, colour vision discrimination was measured with the Lanthony Desaturated Panel D-15 Test and memory performance with the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Both occasional and dependent cocaine users showed higher colour confusion indices than controls. Users of the serotonergic stimulant MDMA (26%), occasional (30%) and dependent cocaine users (34%) exhibited more frequent blue-yellow colour vision disorders compared to controls (9%). Inferior performance of MDMA users was caused by a subgroup with high amphetamine co-use (55%), while MDMA use alone was not associated with decreased blue-yellow discrimination (0%). Cognitive performance was worse in cocaine users with colour vision disorder compared to users and controls with intact colour vision and both colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits were related to cocaine use. Occasional cocaine and amphetamine use might induce blue-yellow colour vision impairment, whereas the serotonergic stimulant MDMA does not impair colour vision. The association between colour vision impairment and cognitive deficits in cocaine users may reflect that retinal and cerebral dopamine alterations are linked to a certain degree.
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ABSTRACT: d-Amphetamine coupled with behavioral training has been effective for improving functional recovery after stroke. d-amphetamine acts on multiple brain transmitter systems, but the recovery enhancing effect has been attributed to its noradrenergic actions. Another potent modulator of learning is dopamine, which may also enhance stroke recovery in humans. Based on data from previous studies of our group, we compared the learning enhancing effects of d-amphetamine with a more selective dopaminergic substance (levodopa) in identical protocols. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we had taught 60 male healthy subjects a miniature lexicon of 50 concrete nouns over the course of five consecutive training days using an associative learning principle. Subjects had received either d-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg), levodopa/carbidopa (fixed dose of 100/25 mg), or placebo 90 min prior to training on each of the 5 days. Novel word learning was significantly enhanced in both the d-amphetamine and levodopa groups as compared to the placebo group. The learning superiority was maintained at the two re-assessments (1 week and 1 month post training). Both d-amphetamine and levodopa are thus potent drugs in enhancing learning in humans. We here discuss why the efficiency of both d-amphetamine and levodopa may be related to dopaminergic rather than noradrenergic actions.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2006; 248(1-2):42-7. · 2.35 Impact Factor
Article: Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Decreased dopaminergic function has been postulated to underlie cocaine addiction. To examine the possibility that dysfunction of brain regions subserved by the dopamine system could promote cocaine self-administration, positron emission tomography and a dual-tracer approach was used to examine dopamine D2 receptor availability and regional brain glucose metabolism in cocaine abusers. When compared to normal controls, cocaine abusers showed significant decreases in dopamine D2 receptor availability which persisted 3-4 months after detoxification. Decreases in dopamine D2 receptor availability were associated with decreased metabolism in several regions of the frontal lobes, most markedly orbito-frontal cortex and cingulate gyri. Dopamine dysregulation of these brain areas which are involved in the channeling of drive and affect could lead to loss of control resulting in compulsive drug-taking behavior.Synapse 07/1993; 14(2):169-77. · 2.94 Impact Factor
Relationship of striatal dopamine synthesis capacity to age and cognition. Journal of Neuroscience Breitenstein C 28 14320-14328..