SOXs in human prostate cancer: implication as progression and prognosis factors.
ABSTRACT SOX genes play an important role in a number of developmental processes. Potential roles of SOXs have been demonstrated in various neoplastic tissues as tumor suppressors or promoters depending on tumor status and types. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of SOXs in the progression and prognosis of human prostate cancer (PCa).
The gene expression changes of SOXs in human PCa tissues compared with non-cancerous prostate tissues was detected using gene expression microarray, and confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohositochemistry. The roles of these genes in castration resistance were investigated in LNCaP xenograft model of PCa.
The microarray analysis identified three genes (SOX7, SOX9 and SOX10) of SOX family that were significantly dis-regulated in common among four PCa specimens. Consistent with the results of the microarray, differential mRNA and protein levels of three selected genes were found in PCa tissues by QRT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, we found that the immunohistochemical staining scores of SOX7 in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA level (P = 0.02) and metastasis (P = 0.03) were significantly lower than those with lower serum PSA level and without metastasis; the increased SOX9 protein expression was frequently found in PCa tissues with higher Gleason score (P = 0.02) and higher clinical stage (P < 0.0001); the down-regulation of SOX10 tend to be found in PCa tissues with higher serum PSA levels (P = 0.03) and advanced pathological stage (P = 0.01). Moreover, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the down-regulation of SOX7 and the up-regulation of SOX9 were independent predictors of shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, we discovered that SOX7 was significantly down-regulated and SOX9 was significantly up-regulated during the progression to castration resistance.
Our data offer the convince evidence that the dis-regulation of SOX7, SOX9 and SOX10 may be associated with the aggressive progression of PCa. SOX7 and SOX9 may be potential markers for prognosis in PCa patients. Interestingly, the down-regulation of SOX7 and the up-regulation of SOX9 may be important mechanisms for castration-resistant progression of PCa.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The genetic mechanisms underlying tissue maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract are critical for the proper function of the digestive system under normal physiological stress. The identification of transcription factors and related signal transduction pathways that regulate stem cell maintenance and lineage allocation is attractive from a clinical standpoint in that it may provide targets for novel cell- or drug-based therapies. Sox [sex-determining region Y (Sry) box-containing] factors are a family of transcription factors that are emerging as potent regulators of stem cell maintenance and cell fate decisions in multiple organ systems and might provide valuable insight toward the understanding of these processes in endodermally derived tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. In this review, we focus on the known genetic functions of Sox factors and their roles in epithelial tissues of the esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, pancreas, and liver. Additionally, we discuss pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract that are associated with a dysregulation of Sox factors. Further study of Sox factors and their role in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology may lead to advances that facilitate control of tissue maintenance and development of advanced clinical therapies.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 02/2011; 300(4):G503-15. · 3.43 Impact Factor
Article: SOX antibodies in small-cell lung cancer and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: frequency and relation with survival.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SOX1 antibodies are common in small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) with and without paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) and can serve as serological tumor marker. Addition of other antibodies might improve its diagnostic power. We validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the diagnostic value of serum antibodies in SCLC and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Clinical outcome with respect to SOX antibodies was evaluated, as the SOX-related antitumor immune response might help to control the tumor growth. We used recombinant SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, SOX21, HuC, HuD, or HelN1 proteins in an ELISA to titrate serum samples and validated the assay by western blot. We tested 136 consecutive SCLC patients, 86 LEMS patients (43 with SCLC), 14 patients with SCLC and PNS (paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration or Hu syndrome), 62 polyneuropathy patients, and 18 healthy controls. Our ELISA was equally reliable as western blot. Forty-three percent of SCLC patients and 67% of SCLC-LEMS patients had antibodies to one of the SOX or Hu proteins. SOX antibodies had a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 95% to discriminate between LEMS with SCLC and nontumor LEMS. No difference in survival was observed between SOX positive and SOX negative SCLC patients. SOX antibodies are specific serological markers for SCLC. Our assay is suitable for high throughput screening, detecting 43% of SCLC. SOX antibodies have diagnostic value in discriminating SCLC-LEMS from nontumor LEMS, but have no relation to survival in patients with SCLC.Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 27(26):4260-7. · 18.37 Impact Factor
Article: SOX7, down-regulated in colorectal cancer, induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The sex-determining region Y-box 7 (Sox7) is a member of high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor family, essential for embryonic development and endoderm differentiation. Deregulation of Wnt signaling pathway is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Our results showed that the expression level of SOX7 was frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer cell lines and in primary colorectal tumor tissues, and the SOX7 silencing was partially due to the aberrant DNA methylation of the gene. Restoration of SOX7 induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, SOX7 efficiently suppressed beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity.Cancer letters 01/2009; 277(1):29-37. · 4.86 Impact Factor