Maternal vitamin D status, its associated factors and the course of pregnancy in Thai women.
ABSTRACT CONTEXT: There are limited data on the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women living in Southeast Asia, and changes in their vitamin D status during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy, its predictive factors and the changes in vitamin D status during the course of pregnancy. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A prospective study of 120 pregnant Thai women with gestational age<14 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and clinical data were obtained at the first visit, in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25OHD<75 nmol/L. RESULTS: The prevalences of vitamin D inadequacy were 83.3%, 30.9% and 27.4% for the first, second and third trimesters. The independent predictors of vitamin D inadequacy in the third trimester were not drinking vitamin fortified milk (OR 11.42; 95%CI:3.12-41.86), not taking prenatal vitamins (OR 9.70; 95%CI:2.28-41.19) and having vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester (OR 10.58; 95%CI:2.89-38.80). Vitamin D deficiency was not found in women taking prenatal vitamins. However, 20 women who took at least 400 IU/d of vitamin D from prenatal vitamins still had vitamin D insufficiency in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in pregnant Thai women, especially in the first trimester. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed prior to conception and during pregnancy. For areas with abundant sun exposure like Thailand, vitamin D supplementation at 400 IU/d is likely to prevent vitamin D deficiency, but is inadequate to prevent vitamin D insufficiency even at 800 IU/d. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.