Rotaviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Both licensed rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix™ [RV1] and RotaTeq™ [RV5]) are effective and safe. Studies from countries that have included RV1 or RV5 in the national immunization programs have demonstrated their safety and sustained efficacy under real-life circumstances. A significant decline in acute gastroenteritis-related deaths among Latin American children was observed after the introduction of RV1 and RV5 vaccines. Both vaccines were able to decrease the number of cases of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and of severe rotavirus diseases. Vaccination was also associated with a dramatic reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits for all-cause acute gastroenteritis. Indirect protection after infant mass vaccination has been strongly suggested. Moreover, postlicensure safety studies assessed rare adverse events (rates <1 in 50,000), such as intussusception.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Rotavirus (RV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis (GE) in infants and young children globally, with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) causing dehydration due to diarrhea and frequently leading to hospitalization. Epidemiological data on RVGE in Lebanon are lacking, therefore this study aims to collect such baseline data.
We conducted multicenter, hospital-based surveillance across Lebanon to estimate the proportion of diarrheal hospitalizations attributable to RV in children under 5 years of age. Medical history, GE symptoms, treatment prior to hospitalization and demographics were obtained from medical records and parent/guardian interviews. The severity of GE episodes was determined using the 20-point Vesikari scale (score ⩾11 was considered severe). Stool samples were analyzed for RV using an enzyme immunoassay and for strain prevalence using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Between April 2007 and September 2008, a total of 534 subjects were enrolled, of whom 491 were included in the final analysis. GE attributable to RV was 27.7% and nearly 75% of the RVGE cases occurred in children under 2 years of age. No differences were observed between the severity of signs and symptoms in RV positive and negative subjects. Hospitalization occurred mainly between December–March and lasted for a median of 3 days. Treatment primarily consisted of intravenous rehydration and almost all subjects (96.1%) had recovered by the time of discharge. Prevalent circulating G and P types were G4 (36.9%), G1WT (29.2%), PWT (77.7%) and P (17.7%); the most common circulating RV strain was G4PWT (36.9%).
RVGE hospitalizations are prevalent in children under 5 years of age in Lebanon. This baseline data might be useful for decision makers when initiating measures, such as vaccination, to prevent the disease.
Trials in Vaccinology 12/2013; 16. DOI:10.1016/j.trivac.2013.08.002
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This hospital based surveillance study evaluates the effects of the rotavirus mass vaccination program, which was initiated in Austria in August 2007. Since then, incidence rates of rotavirus hospitalizations in children <15 years of age have decreased by 70% and 64% in 2010 and 2011 compared to the pre-vaccination era (2001-2005). Incidence rates were highest in children <90 days of age, highlighting the importance of the early start of active rotavirus immunization. In children between 2 and 3.5 years in 2011, who were in the second and third year after vaccination in the universal mass vaccination program, incidence rates remained low suggesting sustained protection after vaccination up to three years. In the years 2010 and 2011, field effectiveness of the vaccines was between 79% and 96%, depending on the assumptions made for children without information on vaccination history. From genotyping an increase of the prevalence of G2P in children with breakthrough infection (disease despite vaccination) can be suspected. The rate of severe adverse events was 1.3-1.5 per 10(-5) administered doses of rotavirus vaccines and no death, intussusception or Kawasaki disease was reported in 2010 and 2011 following rotavirus vaccination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Current oral rotavirus vaccines perform suboptimally in resource-poor settings. We investigated the effect of an additional dose and later schedule on the immunogenicity of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in a developing country.
Infants received RV1 at 6 and 10, 10 and 14, or 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. The primary objective was to compare antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion at 18 weeks in the 6/10/14 arm to the cumulative seroconversion (highest result at 14 or 18 weeks) in the 6/10 arm.
Overall, 480 (76.2%) of 630 randomized infants completed the trial per protocol. Seroconversion in the 6/10/14 arm was 36.7% (95% CI, 29.8, 44.2) compared to 36.1% (CI, 29.0, 43.9) in the 6/10 arm, (P=1.0); the result from the 10/14 arm was 38.5% (CI, 31.2, 46.3). Seroconversion in the 6/10 arm at 14 weeks (post hoc) was lower at 29.7% (CI, 23.1, 37.3).
In Pakistani infants, the immunogenicity of RV1 did not increase significantly with 3 doses at 6, 10, and 14 weeks compared to 2 doses at 6 and 10 weeks. Additional strategies should be evaluated for improving rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in high burden countries.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 210(11). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu335 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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