Impact of rotavirus vaccines on rotavirus disease.
ABSTRACT Rotaviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Both licensed rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix™ [RV1] and RotaTeq™ [RV5]) are effective and safe. Studies from countries that have included RV1 or RV5 in the national immunization programs have demonstrated their safety and sustained efficacy under real-life circumstances. A significant decline in acute gastroenteritis-related deaths among Latin American children was observed after the introduction of RV1 and RV5 vaccines. Both vaccines were able to decrease the number of cases of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and of severe rotavirus diseases. Vaccination was also associated with a dramatic reduction in hospitalizations and outpatient visits for all-cause acute gastroenteritis. Indirect protection after infant mass vaccination has been strongly suggested. Moreover, postlicensure safety studies assessed rare adverse events (rates <1 in 50,000), such as intussusception.
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ABSTRACT: This hospital based surveillance study evaluates the effects of the rotavirus mass vaccination program, which was initiated in Austria in August 2007. Since then, incidence rates of rotavirus hospitalizations in children <15 years of age have decreased by 70% and 64% in 2010 and 2011 compared to the pre-vaccination era (2001-2005). Incidence rates were highest in children <90 days of age, highlighting the importance of the early start of active rotavirus immunization. In children between 2 and 3.5 years in 2011, who were in the second and third year after vaccination in the universal mass vaccination program, incidence rates remained low suggesting sustained protection after vaccination up to three years. In the years 2010 and 2011, field effectiveness of the vaccines was between 79% and 96%, depending on the assumptions made for children without information on vaccination history. From genotyping an increase of the prevalence of G2P in children with breakthrough infection (disease despite vaccination) can be suspected. The rate of severe adverse events was 1.3-1.5 per 10(-5) administered doses of rotavirus vaccines and no death, intussusception or Kawasaki disease was reported in 2010 and 2011 following rotavirus vaccination.Vaccine 04/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor