Renal effects of continuous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 in children
ABSTRACT Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) is a new promising treatment for cancer, but is associated with severe renal toxicity. This study is the first to analyse the renal effects of rIL-2 in children. Twenty-one cycles of continuous rIL-2 infusion were studied in 15 patients; mean age was 6.9 years and average weight 18.9 kg. Interstitial fluid retention and oliguria (baseline, 1.7 ml/kg per hour; nadir, 0.5 mg/kg per hour) were associated with hypotension (baseline, 101/56 mm Hg; nadir, 85/43 mm Hg) and decreased intravascular volume (plasma renin activity increased10). Weight gain (+7.9%) was observed in 13 cycles whereas weight loss (–6.3%) was shown in 8 cycles because of digestive and cutaneous losses, mainly in the youngest patients. This prerenal azotaemia was characterized by a decrease in creatinine clearance (from 101 to 36 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and a low fractional excretion and sodium (FENa) (from 0.70% to 0.09%).Hypotension and hypovolaemia needed vascular filling (n=12), dopamine (n=7) and interruption of rIL-2 (n=2). Most abnormalities occurred as early as day 2 of therapy and were always reversible after a short period with sodium leakage (diuresis=2.2 ml/kg per hour, FENa=2.01%). Hypophosphataemia was associated with low urinary excretion of phosphorus, suggesting an increased uptake of inorganic phosphorus by rapidly proliferating lymphoid cells.