There are many factors that influence PM10 concentration in the atmosphere. This paper will look at the PM10 concentration in relation with the wet season (north east monsoon) and dry season (south west monsoon) in Seberang Perai,
Malaysia from the year 2000 to 2004. It is expected that PM10 will reach the peak during south west monsoon as the weather during this season becomes dry and this study has proved that
the highest PM10 concentrations in 2000 to 2004 were recorded in this monsoon. Two probability distributions using Weibull and lognormal were
used to model the PM10 concentration. The best model used for prediction was selected based on performance indicators. Lognormal distribution represents
the data better than Weibull distribution model for 2000, 2001, and 2002. However, for 2003 and 2004, Weibull distribution
represents better than the lognormal distribution. The proposed distributions were successfully used for estimation of exceedences
and predicting the return periods of the sequence year.
KeywordsExceedences-Lognormal distribution-Return period-Weibull distribution
"The air pollution in Klang Valley was related to the increase rate of respiratory diseases which are among the 10 principal causes of death in the Malaysia in 2009   . The sources of pollutants in this region are highly varied, from commercial and industrial development , motor vehicles  to trans boundary haze     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to explore the trend of ambient air pollution (i.e. PM10, CO, NO2, O3) within the eight selected Malaysian air monitoring stations in Klang valley of five years database (from 2007 to 2011). It integrated statistical analysis to compare the air pollution database with the recommended Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (MAAQG) standard and to determine the association between pollutants and meteorological factors. The geographical information system (GIS) softwarewas used to assess the spatial trend of air pollutants across the north-east and south-west monsoons and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the major sources of the air pollution. The statistical analysis showed the hourly trends (1-hour averaging time) of PM10, CO, O3 and NO2 in the Klang Valley were below the MAAQG standard. Klang recorded the highest concentration of PM10, while Petaling Jaya recorded the highest concentrations of CO and NO2 and Shah Alam recorded the highest O3. The 24-hour data for PM10 was found to exceed the MAAQG throughout the five-year period. All pollutants were positively correlated with each other with the exception of CO and O3. Meteorological factors, i.e. ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity were alsosignificantly associated with the pollutants. The spatial distribution map indicated that the PM10 levels remain highly concentrated during the south-west monsoon (hot and dry season), while the CO levels were highly concentrated during the north-east monsoon (wet season). NO2 and O3 were highly determined during the first inter-monsoon.
"Recently research has used this data to establish a clear link between monsoon seasonal variations with levels of PM 10 across the country (Juneng et al., 2009; Md Yusof et al., 2010). In addition, these data also confirmed the role of trans-boundary particulate matter in affecting the Malaysia air quality. "
"Fire from peat land during the southwest monsoon often creates haze episode in South East Asia and contributes significantly to carbon emissions (Anwar et al., 2010; Hyer and Chew, 2010; Md Yusof et al., 2010; Miettinen et al., 2010). For the other seasons, post-harvest combustion, particularly of paddy straw, was found to dominate the biomass burning. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Biomass burning contributes to various organic substances in the atmosphere. Levoglucosan has been recognised as one of the indicators of biomass burning and surfactants are a group of molecules which can be distributed through biomass burning. This research aims to determine the composition of levoglucosan and surfactants in agricultural areas and the several tropical plant species which can contribute to a high amount of levoglucosan and surfactants in the atmosphere. Suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere (fine and coarse mode) was collected in the agricultural areas (paddy fields) during the dry season and compared to samples collected at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi. The soot samples were prepared through the burning of several tropical plant species, namely: Oryza sativa, Rhizophora spp., Elaeis guineensis and Saccharum officinarum at 300°C in a furnace. This allowed for the levels of levoglucosan and surfactants such as MBAS and DBAS to be determined using the colorimetric method. Oxidation and UV radiation were also used to examine the impact of photo-oxidation on the concentration of levoglucosan and surfactants in soot. The results showed that the concentration of levoglucosan in the agricultural areas during harvesting season is significantly higher compared to the levoglucosan recorded at UKM Bangi (semi-urban areas). The concentration of surfactants is dominated by anionic surfactants, particularly in fine mode aerosols. Soot from leaves was found to contribute a high amount of levoglucosan when compared to wood and straw. There are indications that biomass burning can contribute to a large quantity of polar group molecules which behave like anionic surfactants and correlate to the amount of surfactants.
Keywords: Surfactants; Levoglucosan; Biomass burning.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research 12/2011; 11(7):837-845. DOI:10.4209/aaqr.2010.12.0103 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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