Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rock terrain — A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

Journal of Earth System Science (Impact Factor: 0.7). 01/2008; 117(1):49-58. DOI: 10.1007/s12040-008-0012-3

ABSTRACT The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly
composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater
chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon
and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca + Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in
both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial
applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for
Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right
in plot for Ca + Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na-Cl to Ca + Mg-HCO3-SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates
that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate
minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution
process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions
from anthropogenic impact.

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    ABSTRACT: Community drinking water (CDW), mostly naturally flowing groundwater, plays important roles in supplying drinking water for urban and rural residents in Korea. Over 1,600 CDW facilities are distributed throughout the country, many of them situated in the outskirts of metropolitan cities. A large proportion of Korean people have become dependent on CDW for drinking due to a distrust of piped water's quality and a strong belief in the special medicinal effects of some CDWs. However, administrative and official management and the control of CDW facilities have been inadequate when compared with the strict examination and control of commercial bottled water, which is physically treated groundwater from deep bedrock aquifers. In this study, even though signs of anthropogenic contamination were not generally found, the tested chemical compositions of selected CDWs featured high enrichment of some constituents including Ca, Mg, Na, and HCO3 with natural origins such as water-rock interactions. Careless consumption of particular CDWs, which has no scientific basis, will not guarantee health improvement. Consequently, more intensive management of CDW facilities and a long-term interdisciplinary examination of the health effects of CDWs are needed to effectively protect people's health.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to identify the hydrogeochemical process controlling the quality of groundwater, an extensive study was carried out in Imphal and Thoubal district of Manipur, India. The objectives of the studies were to delineate the spatial and temporal variability in groundwater quality and understand its suitability for human uses. In the study area groundwater samples from 45 location have been collected during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for the major ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-, F-, Fe and silica. The water quality of both districts was good for domestic and agricultural uses except for few samples. These saline samples were localized and were due to the inherent lithology of the study area. Three major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO3 type, mixed Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types in Imphal district and Ca-HCO3, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl and Ca-Cl type in Thoubal district) were identified. The mineral stability diagrams indicated that the groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite whereas Gibbs plot showed that the chemical composition of ground water in both districts is controlled by the natural weathering processes irrespective of seasons. Among the chemical weathering processes, silicate weathering was dominant. The results were supported by Wilcox plot and USSL diagrams. The study reflected the overall suitability of groundwater for anthropogenic use.
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