Genetic variability and association studies in pod and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Haryana, India
ABSTRACT Forty Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs) of Pongamia pinnata were selected based on the morphometric traits to identify suitable seed sources with high oil content and for production
of quality seedlings for mass afforestation in different forestry and agroforestry programmes. Significant genetic variability
and association were recorded among 40CPTs for pod and seed traits. Maximum 100-seed weight (186.80g) and pod-weight (403.94g)
was recorded in CPT-33, while CPT-18 showed maximum oil content (44.07%). In general, phenotypic coefficient of variation
was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability (broad
sense) and genetic gain observed for pod–seed ratio (99.00%, 87.78%), 100-seed weight (100.00%, 66.99%) and 100-pod weight
(98.00%, 57.38%), respectively indicate additive gene action. Seed weight and pod weight showed positive and significant correlation
with oil content. CPTs 18, 20, 33, 13 and 29 were found to be the best on the basis of oil content and pod–seed characters.
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ABSTRACT: A total of 24 candidate plus trees (CPTs) of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. were selected to elucidate their variation and diversity based on thirteen quantitative traits (4 pod traits, 6 seed traits of parent trees and 3 progeny traits) at Forest Research Centre, Institute of Forest Productivity — Mandar, Ranchi district during 2005–2007. The results show that, CPT-19 had maximum for seven traits viz, pod length (65.6 mm), 100-pod weight (542.4 g), seed 2D (two dimension) area (351.2 mm2), seed length (27.9 mm), seed breadth (17.4 mm), 100-seed weight (217.9 g) and plant height (164.3 cm). The traits, 100-pod weight and 100-seed weight had a high heritability (98.4%, 96.9%) accompanied with high genetic advance (46.0%, 34.9%). There is a positive significant correlation between 100-pod weight and 100-seed weight traits at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with plant height, collar diameter and volume index at 30 MAS (months after sowing). Volume index expressed a moderate heritability (47.4%) accompanied with high genetic advance (48.4%), indicating that the character is governed by additive gene effects. In divergence study, 24 accessions were grouped into 6 clusters on the basis of non-hierarchical euclidian cluster analysis. The genotypes in cluster IV (CPT-5, CPT-6, CPT-7, CPT-12, CPT-16, CPT-18, CPT-22) and cluster III (CPT-4, CPT-8, CPT-9, CPT-20, CPT-21) were most heterogeneous and can be best used within group hybridization. The wide diversity exists between the cluster V and II, followed by cluster II and I and crosses between CPTs of these clusters may result in substantial segregates. It is revealed that the existence of substantial variation and diversity can be utilized for genetic resource conservation and further tree improvement programmers of the species. Keywords Pongamia pinnata –heritability–genetic advance–correlation–path analysis–image analyzer–diversity analysisJournal of Forestry Research 01/2011; 22(2):193-200.
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ABSTRACT: Progeny studies of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were carried with respect to bioproductivity, pod and seed characters which is one of the selection methods in tree improvement programmes. Variations in bioproductivity and biodiesel parameters of both the plants were compared every six months for four years of investigation and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation coefficient by Pearson's method using software Graphpad instat 3.06 (for Windows and Mac). Pongamia pinnata has better germination rate (71.4%), 100 pod weight (311.59 gm) and 100 seed weight (173.46 gm) as compared to Jatropha curcas for germination rate (43.2%), 100 pod weight (111.29 gm) and 100 seed weight (67.46 gm). Pongamia pinnata has strong cor-relation for plant height to canopy growth (0.948), collar diameter (0.994), number of branches per plant (0.995) and to number of leaves per branch (0.862) as compared to Jatropha curcas which showed good correlation among plant height to canopy growth (0.976), collar diameter (0.970), number of branches per plant (0.988), number of leaves per branch (0.920) and to number of pods per branch (0.657). However, Jatropha curcas depicted negative correlation for pod breadth to seed length (-0.447), seed breadth (-0.248) and to seed thickness (-0.364) and among the 100 pod weight to seed length (-0.199), seed thickness (-0.220) and to 100 seed weight (-0.704). About 4 kg of Pongamia pinnata seeds were required for each liter of crude oil which yields 896 ml of biodiesel on transesterification as compared to 5.66 kg of Jatropha curcas seeds for a liter of crude oil, producing about 663 ml of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel meets the major specification of American Society for Test-ing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel. The crude glycerin Project funding: Corresponding editor: Chai Ruihai and seed cake obtained as byproduct during biodiesel production were also measured which can be purified and used in composting, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. Introduction India is the fifth largest energy consumer in the world and im-ports 70% of its total petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL) which grew to US$ 155.6 billion in 2011-12 showing a higher growth of 46.9 per cent as compared to 21.6 per cent a year ago with an average price of US$ 111.6 per barrel (India's Foreign Trade: 2011-12). So the issue of biofuel production needs careful and well thought strategy as the demand for diesel is five times more than the demand for petrol. The biofuel policy of India empha-sizes that the biofuel production particularly biodiesel should be without competing with land and water resources which are much needed for food production. The major emphasis should be on developing wastelands which are unsuitable for crop growth. Based on extensive research, over 300 diverse species of trees yielding oil bearing seeds are identified, out of these 37 species were found to be appropriate for conventional biodiesel produc-tion throughout the world (Azam et al. 2005 and Subramanian et al. 2005). The major sources of non-edible oil yielding plants in India with high oil content are Jatropha curcas (3035%), Pongamia pinnata (3040%), Simarouba glauca (6065%), Madhuca indica (3035%), Ricinus communis (3035%), Azadirachta indica (3035%) and these are considered as potential feedstock for bio-diesel production which are abundantly grown in semiarid re-gions in many parts of the world including India (Karmee and Chandha 2005; Puhan et al. 2005; Akpan et al. 2006; Dash et al. 2008 and Rao et al. 2008). Among the major non-edible oil yielding plants, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata are judged as the prominent species, so the Planning Commission of ORIGINAL PAPERJournal of Forestry Research 06/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Seed morphometric characters and oil content were studied in multiple-use plant, Calophyllum inophyllum L. of two countries, Australia (southern hemisphere) and Sri Lanka (northern hemisphere). Seven provenances were selected which included three from northern Australia and four from Sri Lanka. Twelve Candidate plus trees (CPTs) each were selected from 2 to 3 different locations within each provenance based on the morphometric and qualitative traits (GBH>100cm). Seed collection in both hemispheres was carried out from May to August 2008. Calophyllum inophyllum L. provenances showed a distinct hemisphere variation in their seed-related characters and oil content. All provenances differed significantly (P<0.05) with one another in seed length. Seeds from Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and seeds from Cardwell Australia recorded the highest (≈57%) and the lowest oil (≈31%) content respectively. Strong correlations were found between seed morphometric characters. Relatively weaker correlations were found between seed morphometric characters and oil content. Variations in seed-related characters were largely attributed by the provenance contribution which shows the significance of the effect of genetic variability on above mentioned seed related characters. Keywords Calophyllum inophyllum L.–Oil–Provenance–Seed–VariationNew Forests 01/2010; 41(1):89-94. · 1.64 Impact Factor