Genetic variability and association studies in pod and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Haryana, India

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (Impact Factor: 1.48). 11/2007; 54(8):1827-1832. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-006-9204-3

ABSTRACT Forty Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs) of Pongamia pinnata were selected based on the morphometric traits to identify suitable seed sources with high oil content and for production
of quality seedlings for mass afforestation in different forestry and agroforestry programmes. Significant genetic variability
and association were recorded among 40CPTs for pod and seed traits. Maximum 100-seed weight (186.80g) and pod-weight (403.94g)
was recorded in CPT-33, while CPT-18 showed maximum oil content (44.07%). In general, phenotypic coefficient of variation
was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability (broad
sense) and genetic gain observed for pod–seed ratio (99.00%, 87.78%), 100-seed weight (100.00%, 66.99%) and 100-pod weight
(98.00%, 57.38%), respectively indicate additive gene action. Seed weight and pod weight showed positive and significant correlation
with oil content. CPTs 18, 20, 33, 13 and 29 were found to be the best on the basis of oil content and pod–seed characters.

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    ABSTRACT: Progeny studies of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were carried with respect to bioproductivity, pod and seed characters which is one of the selection methods in tree improvement programmes. Variations in bioproductivity and biodiesel parameters of both the plants were compared every six months for four years of investigation and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation coefficient by Pearson's method using software Graphpad instat 3.06 (for Windows and Mac). Pongamia pinnata has better germination rate (71.4%), 100 pod weight (311.59 gm) and 100 seed weight (173.46 gm) as compared to Jatropha curcas for germination rate (43.2%), 100 pod weight (111.29 gm) and 100 seed weight (67.46 gm). Pongamia pinnata has strong cor-relation for plant height to canopy growth (0.948), collar diameter (0.994), number of branches per plant (0.995) and to number of leaves per branch (0.862) as compared to Jatropha curcas which showed good correlation among plant height to canopy growth (0.976), collar diameter (0.970), number of branches per plant (0.988), number of leaves per branch (0.920) and to number of pods per branch (0.657). However, Jatropha curcas depicted negative correlation for pod breadth to seed length (-0.447), seed breadth (-0.248) and to seed thickness (-0.364) and among the 100 pod weight to seed length (-0.199), seed thickness (-0.220) and to 100 seed weight (-0.704). About 4 kg of Pongamia pinnata seeds were required for each liter of crude oil which yields 896 ml of biodiesel on transesterification as compared to 5.66 kg of Jatropha curcas seeds for a liter of crude oil, producing about 663 ml of biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel meets the major specification of American Society for Test-ing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel. The crude glycerin Project funding: Corresponding editor: Chai Ruihai and seed cake obtained as byproduct during biodiesel production were also measured which can be purified and used in composting, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. Introduction India is the fifth largest energy consumer in the world and im-ports 70% of its total petroleum, oil and lubricants (POL) which grew to US$ 155.6 billion in 2011-12 showing a higher growth of 46.9 per cent as compared to 21.6 per cent a year ago with an average price of US$ 111.6 per barrel (India's Foreign Trade: 2011-12). So the issue of biofuel production needs careful and well thought strategy as the demand for diesel is five times more than the demand for petrol. The biofuel policy of India empha-sizes that the biofuel production particularly biodiesel should be without competing with land and water resources which are much needed for food production. The major emphasis should be on developing wastelands which are unsuitable for crop growth. Based on extensive research, over 300 diverse species of trees yielding oil bearing seeds are identified, out of these 37 species were found to be appropriate for conventional biodiesel produc-tion throughout the world (Azam et al. 2005 and Subramanian et al. 2005). The major sources of non-edible oil yielding plants in India with high oil content are Jatropha curcas (3035%), Pongamia pinnata (3040%), Simarouba glauca (6065%), Madhuca indica (3035%), Ricinus communis (3035%), Azadirachta indica (3035%) and these are considered as potential feedstock for bio-diesel production which are abundantly grown in semiarid re-gions in many parts of the world including India (Karmee and Chandha 2005; Puhan et al. 2005; Akpan et al. 2006; Dash et al. 2008 and Rao et al. 2008). Among the major non-edible oil yielding plants, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata are judged as the prominent species, so the Planning Commission of ORIGINAL PAPER
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations were made to determine the nature and extent of variations present for 10 morphological characters of cone, seed and seedlings of 17 plus trees (PTs) of Pinus kesiya growing in eastern Himalayas (Meghalaya state) of India. The significant variations has been observed in cone weight, cone length, cone diameter, seed length, seed diameter, seed weight, number of seeds per cone, seed germination, seedling height and seedling collar diameter among different PTs of the species. Significant positive correlation (p P. kesiya depend more on the cone size. Seed germination is found positively correlated (p p P. kesiya also showed a wide range of variability in terms of variance, coefficient of variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and genetic gain. Seed weight, seeds per cone and seedling diameter showed high heritability values (>75) coupled with maximum genetic gain. Traits with such values indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive components and are under strong genetic control. The findings of the study revealed that PTs expressed both phenotypic and genotypic differences in the seed, cone and seedling characters, which may be attributed to the differences in genetic makeup of various PTs and environmental factors i.e. genotypic and environmental interaction. The presence of high variability in P. kesiya PTs for different characters provide further opportunities to improve the population in subsequent generations so as to establish this species as an important timber tree to be grown on less fertile and degraded soils in its distributional ranges.
    Journal of Forestry Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11676-015-0036-x